Organizational Citizenship Behaviour and Demographic Profiling: An Exploration Study among Local Government Workforce in Terengganu, Malaysia | Chapter 02 | Current Perspective to Economics and Management Vol. 4

Local authority is the manager of urban environment and ranks last under the Malaysia government structure after Federal and State governments. The main duty of local authority is to stimulate economic growth and social development of a district. However, the operational roles that these local authorities supposed to portray have to some extent do not meet the public expectations, resulting in various complaints being filed as evidenced from Public Complaint Bureau statistics. In response to the public outcry for better service delivery, the objective of this research is to investigate the effect of demographic factors (gender, age, working experience, supervision period and service group) in influencing the exhibition of citizenship behaviour among local authority workforce in east coast region of Malaysia. 167 respondents from four local authority in Terengganu have participated where data were collected using stratified random sampling approach. Empirical results revealed that only supervision period has significant influence in elevating employees’ Organizational Citizenship Behaviour, hence, supporting social exchange theory. Therefore, management should undertake hands-on actions in warranting that these demographic variables be strengthened in invoking employees’ citizenship behaviour towards instilling community confidence towards diverse services provided by local authorities.


Author(s) Details

Rashidah Mohamad Ibrahim
Faculty of Economics and Management Sciences, University Sultan Zainal Abidin, 21300 Kuala Nerus, Terengganu, Malaysia.

Nor Mazlina Abu Bakar
Faculty of Economics and Management Sciences, University Sultan Zainal Abidin, 21300 Kuala Nerus, Terengganu, Malaysia.

Ahmad Firdause Md Fazil
Faculty of Economics and Management Sciences, University Sultan Zainal Abidin, 21300 Kuala Nerus, Terengganu, Malaysia.

Aziz Amin [PhD]
Faculty of Applied Social Sciences, University Sultan Zainal Abidin, Kuala Nerus, Terengganu, Malaysia.

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Financial Well-being among Public Employees in Malaysia: A Preliminary Study | Chapter 08 | Current Research in Education and Social Studies Vol. 3

Public employee’s innovativeness, responsiveness, efficiency and friendliness in services are the  core prescriptions to enhance the competitiveness of one’s country. Financial well-being and employees are two aspects that consequently related with each other that have received substantial deliberation from researchers, employers and financial advisor. Financial well-being can affect both direct and indirectly towards an individual, team and also organization. Changes in employee’s financial well-being level whether it becomes high or low will affect their job performance. The purpose of this study is to discuss the level of public employee’s financial well-being in Malaysia as well as to examine the determinants of financial well-being. A total of 73 questionnaires have been distributed through e-survey (email based) using convenient sampling technique in order to conduct this pilot test (pre-test). Only 30 public employees have participated in this study. The results identified that majority of public employees is at the moderate level of financial well-being. Even so, appropriate action should be taken through financial education in order to prevent worst case scenario in the future.

Author(s) Details

Dr. N. Mokhtar
Department of Resource Management and Consumer Studies, Faculty of Human Ecology, Universiti Putra Malaysia, UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.

Dr. A. R. Husniyah
Department of Resource Management and Consumer Studies, Faculty of Human Ecology, Universiti Putra Malaysia, UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.

Dr. M. F. Sabri
Department of Resource Management and Consumer Studies, Faculty of Human Ecology, Universiti Putra Malaysia, UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.

Dr. M. Abu Talib
Department of Human Development and Family Studies, Faculty of Human Ecology, Universiti Putra Malaysia, UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.

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Effect of Verbal & Pictorial Materials on Memory Retention among Undergraduate Students – An Interventional Study | Chapter 05 | New Insights into Disease and Pathogen Research Vol. 1

Aims: To compare the effectiveness of pictorial against verbal materials in memory retention among medical students.

Study Design: Crossover randomized controlled trial.

Place and Duration of Study: This study was conducted in Melaka-Manipal Medical College, Muar, Johor, Malaysia in April 2016.

Methodology: 38 right-handed medical students of Melaka-Manipal Medical College were volunteers and participants were divided into two groups equally via simple random sampling. One group of participants were to recall pictures shown first followed by words while the other group of participants were to recall words first followed by pictures. All the pictures and words shown were of everyday objects. Data were analysed using Epi Info version 7.

Results: There was a significant difference of memory retention between pictures and words (P-value =; p < 0.05) and of memory accuracy (P-value; p < 0.05). For memory retention, both groups were found to have higher scores for pictures than words as both groups obtained a mean score of 11.3 and 13.4 respectively for the pictures and 9.7 and 11.1 respectively for words. For memory accuracy, pictures were found to be recalled better than words as the mean scores for the pictures are higher than words in both groups.

Conclusion: Information in the form of pictures should be more utilized in medical schools so that medical students can have better memory retention which in turn will lead to better academic performances. This study shows that picture superiority effect has a remarkable effect in the memory retention of pictorial and verbal materials. Therefore, the results of this study support the need to implement and apply this theory in medical schools which require heavy memorization of informations in the form of pictures and text. Hence, the utilization of this method of study is essential for more efficient learning and improving academic performance.

Author(s) Details

Dr Khoo Jing Hern

Department of Community Medicine, Melaka Manipal Medical College, 75150 Melaka, Malaysia.

Dr. Muhammad Khairul Anwar bin Mohd Yusof

Department of Community Medicine, Melaka Manipal Medical College, 75150 Melaka, Malaysia.

Dr. Fatin Nuraidil binti Zaifulbahri

Department of Community Medicine, Melaka Manipal Medical College, 75150 Melaka, Malaysia.

Nurfarah Aini binti Azahar

Department of Community Medicine, Melaka Manipal Medical College, 75150 Melaka, Malaysia.

Dr. Grace Sugumaran

Department of Community Medicine, Melaka Manipal Medical College, 75150 Melaka, Malaysia.

Navin Kumar Sarkunam

Department of Community Medicine, Melaka Manipal Medical College, 75150 Melaka, Malaysia.

Read full article: http://bp.bookpi.org/index.php/bpi/catalog/view/53/529/466-1

View Volume: https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/nidpr/v1