Dictionary of Medicinal Plants – Scientific Names, Family and Selected Vernacular (English, Sinhala, Sanskrit and Tamil) Names | Book Publisher International

Medicinal plants have been known for centuries and are highly valued all over the world as a rich source of therapeutic agents of medicinal plants for public health care in developing nations [65]. Even today, the WHO estimates that up to 80 percent of the world population still relies mainly on traditional remedies such as herbs for their primary health care [13]. Ahmed et al. mentioned that according to a survey conducted by W.H.O., traditional healers treat 65% patients in Sri Lanka and 80% in India [3]. According to the WHO, around 21,000 plant species have the potential for being used as medicinal plants. Different ethnic and different language speaking peoples are living in Asian countries.

Plants are commonly known by their local names in every part of the world. These local names play a very important role in ethno-botanical study of a specific tribe or region. Local names given to plants by indigenous people in their local dialects often reflect a broad spectrum of information on their understanding of plants. Most often, the local names are given based on some salient features, e.g. appearance, shape, size, habit, habitat, smell, taste, colour, utility, and other peculiar character, etc. of the plants [15]. These practical, meaningful, easily understandable and rememberable local names are disappearing rapidly along with the culture and tradition of the tribal group of Asian countries. As a preliminary step for documentation purpose, Authors were planned to publish this Dictionary of Medicinal Plants with 906 Medicinal plants, its Scientific names, family and common vernacular (English, Sinhala, Sanskrit and Tamil) Names.

Author(s) Details

Sri Ranjani Sivapalan
University of Jaffna, Sri Lanka.

Vinotha Sanmugarajah
University of Jaffna, Sri Lanka.

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Basic Concepts in Pharmacology | Book Publisher International

Pharmacology is a fascinating and multifaceted discipline that impacts both our professional careers and personal lives. The study of pharmacology covers a broad spectrum of diverse yet interrelated topics, such as botany, molecular chemistry, research, clinical observation, toxicology and patient education. Medical pharmacology is a unique synthesis of basic pharmacology with clinical pharmacology and pharmacotherapeutics. It is both a basic and an applied science. It forms the backbone of rational therapeutics. Whereas the medical student and the prescribing physician are primarily concerned with the applied aspects, correct and skilful application of drugs is impossible without a proper understanding of their basic pharmacology.

The purpose of this book is not merely to be a source of information in basic pharmacology, but also to present the background and context in which different classes of drugs have been developed and are used. This book deals with drug interaction with living organism, drug dosage forms and biological effects of drugs. Along with the development of new drug delivery systems. The present book first edition is maintained, revisited and extensively updated. Latest therapeutic guidelines from authoritative sources like WHO, British National Formulary, National Formulary of India, as well as from eminent professional bodies have been incorporated.

As such this book should be useful to practitioners in the hospital doctors (MBBS & MD), pharmaceutical and allied health sciences, hospital pharmacists, drug patent attorneys, government scientists and regulatory personnel, and other seeking information concerning the design, manufacture, and control of pharmaceutical dosage forms. In fact all those persons involved in new drug discovery, dug mechanism of action and its effect. It can form the basis for the modern revision of syllabi of courses of B. Pharm, M. Pharm and M. Sc. Pharmaceutical chemistry with specialization in pharmaceuticals.

Author(s) Details

Subhash Chandra Kothiyal
Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, School of Sciences, H. N. B. Garhwal (Central) University, Srinagar (Garhwal), Uttarakhand, India.

Sarla Saklani
Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, School of Sciences, H. N. B. Garhwal (Central) University, Srinagar (Garhwal), Uttarakhand, India.

Shrivatsa Kothiyal
D. B. S. Public School, Muni Ki Reti, Lal Tappar, Rishikesh, Dehradun, Uttarakhand, India.

Sarvesh Kumar
Government Polytechnic, Srinagar Garhwal, Uttarakhand, India.

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An Effective Application of the Spectrophotometric and Thermodynamic Methods for the Determination of Thiamine Hydrochloride | Book Publisher International

An effective application of the spectrophotometric and thermodynamic methods have been described for the determination of thiamine hydrochloride. The spectrophotometric method was based on charge transfer complexation reaction using thiamine as  n-electron donor and 2, 3 dichloro-5,6-dicyano -1,4-benzoquinone (DDQ) as a π-acceptor to form a highly coloured species  with 1:1 stoichiometric ratio. The coloured product was quantified spectrometrically at 474nm under the established experimental conditions.  Beer’s law was obeyed over the concentration ranges of 5-80μg/ml. The Apparent molar absorptivity was calculated to be 1.08 x 103Lmol-1cm-1with the corresponding Sandell sensitivity of 2.68. The Ross equation was used for studying the thermodynamic parameters and result reveals that ∆S was calculated to be between 67.13J/mol and 66.70J/mol, ∆H = -2.87kJ/mol. The association constants were found to decrease from 30°C to 60°C with increase in molar absorptivity.  Also high values of association constant were seen which ranged from 500Lmol-1cm-1to 1667Lmol-1cm-1. The proposed methods were applied successfully to the determination of thiamine hydrochloride in pure and commercial forms with average recovery of 96.2% ± 0.016. Statistical comparison of the results were performed using student’s t-test and f-test at 95% confidence level

Author  Details:

Gloria Nwanisobi
Department of Pure and Industrial Chemistry, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria.

Pius Ukoha
Department of Pure and Industrial Chemistry, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria.

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Unnatural Death of Foetus: A Forensic Study | Book Publisher International

Death may occur naturally, un-naturally, or as the result of a combination of both originating from oneself or another person. Foetal death is a death prior to the complete expulsion of a product of conception, irrespective of the period of pregnancy. The death is indicated by the fact that after such separation, the foetus does not breathe nor show any other evidence of life, such as the beating of the heart, pulsation of the umbilical cord, or definitive movement of voluntary muscles. Heartbeats are to be distinguished from transient cardiac contractions; respirations are to be distinguished from fleeting respiratory efforts or gasps. For all foetal deaths aged 20 weeks and above as calculated from the start of the last menstrual period to the date of delivery, a different form called certificate of fetal death must be prepared and the causes of death completely filled out by the certifier

Author(s) Details

Ibtisam Jasim Sodani
Forensic DNA Center for Research and Training / Al-NahrainUniversity, Baghdad, Iraq.

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Amino Acids Deficits in Brain | Book Publisher International

Amino  acid, any of a  group of organic molecules that consist  of a  basic amino group (―NH)2,  an acidic carboxyl group (―COOH), and an organicRgroup (or side chain) that is unique to each amino acid. The termamino acidis short forα-amino [alpha-amino] carboxylic acid. Each molecule contains a  centralcarbon(C)  atom,  called the  α-carbon,  to which  both  an  amino  and  a carboxyl  group  are attached. The remaining two bonds of the α-carbon atom are generally satisfied by ahydrogen(H) atom and theRgroup. Amino acids can be called the “building blocks” of protein and are an important part  of  every  human  body.  There  are  twenty  different  amino  acids –nine  of  which  are  called “essential” and eleven of which are labeled as “non-essential.” The human body needs all twenty of these  amino  acids,  in  varying  degrees,  to  be  healthy  and  fully  functional. All  twenty  have  distinct chemical  structures  and  are  used  for  different  roles –such  as  forming  neurotransmitters,  forming hormones  and  producing  energy.  But  their  primary  role  is  to  build  proteins.Nonessential  amino acidsare synthesized by  most of the cells,  including hematopoietic lineages.The  essential amino acidsthe body needs to obtain them from the diet.

Biography of author(s)

Dheaa Shamikh Zageer
Forensic DNA Center for Research and Training/AL-Nahrain University, Baghdad, Iraq.

Sundus Fadhil Hantoosh
Forensic DNA Center for Research and Training/AL-Nahrain University, Baghdad, Iraq.

HaiderK AL-Rubai
Forensic DNA Center for Research and Training/AL-Nahrain University, Baghdad, Iraq.

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Diabetic Retinopathy– An Overview | Book Publisher International

Diabetic retinopathy is the leading cause of blindness world over. Neurovascular degeneration of the retina is considered presently as the cause as against the vascular changes which are believed to be causative previously. In fact the neuronal changes are shown to ante-date the vascular changes. There is complex interaction of many cells like pericytes, mullers cells, astrocytes, vascular endothelial cells as well as factors like advanced glycation products, Oxidative and metabolic stress, inflammatory cytokines, leukotrienes, various growth factors and glycoproteins etc. in the pathogenesis of DR. Various biochemical pathways like Polyol pathway, glucosamine pathway, AGE pathway and PKC pathways interacting with one another is also recognised as having a role in the pathogenesis of DR. But the common link responsible for all these factors involvement linking to DM2 is still not clear. The mechanism explaining Benfotiamine, a thiamine analogue found to be useful in treating DR , though attractive in integrating the various biochemical pathways cited above, is not comprehensive. The concept of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is a better alternative explanations linking up all pathogenic factors concerned to chronic hyperglycaemia of DzM2. But antioxidants proved futile in treating DR. It may be useful to remember that extensive ROS production in DM2 is consequent to shift of energy metabolism from glycolysis to B-oxidation of fats. Unless this is reversed, ROS production continues. The Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT) and UKPDS are the two landmark clinical trials that clearly showed the relationship between chronic hyperglycaemia and genesis of DR. Progression in T1DM and T2DM patients, respectively. Randomized controlled trials have shown that early treatment of DM2 can reduce an individual’s risk of severe visual loss by 57%. Intensive glycaemic control appeared long lasting because of the metabolic memory, also known as ‘legacy effect’. A term which explains the beneficial effects of immediate intensive treatment of hyperglycaemia with a sustained benefit with respect to the outcomes for many years, regardless of glycaemia in the later course of diabetes. Hence the current emphasis is prevention of DR with strict glycaemic control in DM2 ab initio.

Biography of author(s)

A. S. V. Prasad
Department of Internal Medicine, GITAM Dental College, Rishikonda, Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh, India.

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