Cultivation of Mint (Mentha x gracilis) in Agroforestry System | Chapter 11 | Current Research Trends in Biological Science Vol. 1

Aims: The cultivation of medicinal plants in intercropping with other species of agricultural use has been an alternative to make production sustainable in family farming. The objective of this work was to evaluate the growth, biomass production, and chemical composition of the essential oil of mint (Mentha x gracilis Sole) in intercropping with fruit species in an agroforestry system. This study was conducted as an important contribution to agroforestry management practices and to assist in deciding which intercropping option to use in this cultivation system. In particular, this information should facilitate the establishment of scientific intercropping systems, help maintain the sustainable use of agroforestry and provide a theoretical basis for the sustainable development of agriculture. Study Design: The experimental design was randomized blocks with four treatments, mint inter planted with citrus (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck), bananas (Musa spp.), blackberries (Morus nigra), or Barbados cherries (Malpighia glabra). Place and Duration of Study: The experiment was conducted in the agroforestry located in the sector of Olericultura of the Federal University of Technology – Paraná (UTFPR), Brazil, in the period between November 2015 to February 2017. Methodology: We analyzed physiological and growth variables as light intensity, relative chlorophyll index, height, leaf area, biomass accumulation, essential oil content, oil production and chemical composition of mint in agroforestry. Results: The highest production of biomass  (252.50; 249.31 g planta-1)  and essential oil (135.42; 141.63 L ha-1) were obtained in the intercropping of mint with citrus and Barbados cherries, respectively, possibly due to the edaphic climatic conditions, such as greater light intensity, that favored the growth, production and chemical composition of the mint essential oil. Bananas and blackberries intercropped with mint were not beneficial for the growth and production of essential oils. Conclusion: The intercropping of mint with citrus and Barbados cherries resulted in higher growth, biomass accumulation and essential oil content and production. The major components of the essential oils were linalool (48.66; 49.87%) and carvone (18.30; 17.86%) with higher percentages in the intercropping of mint with citrus and Barbados cherries, respectively. The cultivation of mint by intercropping with fruit species such as citrus and Barbados cherries is an option to diversify the production of medicinal plants, making it sustainable.

Author(s) Details

Dalva Paulus
Department of Agronomy, Federal University of Technology – Paraná, Campus Dois Vizinhos, 85660-000, Dois Vizinhos, Paraná, Brazil.

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A Survey of the Antibacterial Activity of Three Plants Used in the Congolese Herbal Medicine Practiced by the Healers in the City of Lubumbashi: Recent Advancement | Chapter 6 | Trends in Pharmaceutical Research and Development Vol. 1

Since 2002, the folk medicine promotion and integration in the Congolese health’s system has become a reality because it has been proven to be a viable alternative for the majority of the population daily confronted to health problems due to the lack of access to primary care services.  Moreover, the cohabitation between the modern and folk medicine has been successfully implemented in many countries throughout the world and consequently, those countries are looked at a best examples of the integration of the folk medicine in their health’s system. As a result, a great number of the illnesses that torment people living in rural and urban areas are both cured by the modern physicians and traditional healers using different therapeutic approaches and schemes. The City of Lubumbashi in the DR Congo is also concerned this phenomenon and what precedes is raising the issue of ascertaining that the therapeutic implemented by traditional healers is valid.  Such a preoccupation is considered by the present survey which is interested in the evaluation of the antibacterial activity of three medicinal plants used in herbal medicine by the healers in the city of Lubumbashi. It is based on the ethnobotanical knowledge and the testing of sensitivity of the pathogen microbes towards the plant extracts of Terminalia mollis, Diospyros batocana and Antidesma venosum. Results from the testing of the plants extracts revealed that Proteus mirabilis is the microbe more sensitive to the extracts of T. mollis whereas Salmonellatyphii showed greater sensitivity to extracts of D. batocana and A. venosum. Concerning Klebsiella pneumoniae, no sensitivity was observed towards extracts of A. venosum. The extracts from T. mollis and D. batocana, tested against the reference bacteria, revealed to be bacteriostatic which behaviour justifies their use as sources of drugs against infectious illnesses by the healers in the City of Lubumbashi.

Author(s) Details

L. M. Shengo
Department of Chemistry, Faculty of the Sciences, University of Lubumbashi, P.O.Box 1825, Likasi Avenue, Katanga Province, The Democratic Republic of Congo.

 T. H. Mundongo
Department of Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, University of Lubumbashi, P.O.Box 1825, Kasapa Road, The Katanga Province, Democratic Republic of Congo

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Conservation Assessment of Plants Used for Respiratory Diseases by Using Ethnobotanical Criteria: Case of Lake Victoria Region, Tanzania | Chapter 02 | Recent Advances in Biological Research Vol. 6

Lake Victoria region has the highest HIV prevalence in East Africa due to concentration of commercial farms, fishing and mining that escalate social dynamic interactions. High rates of HIV transmission and poor working conditions further amplify the risk of TB in the region. Local populations in the area have opted different alternatives among which medicinal plants are popular for managing health conditions related to the respiratory diseases. Consequently, selective consumerism of plants for managing respiratory diseases profoundly affects diversity of priority medicinal plants. Detection of the effect of selective consumerism to the preferred plants in-situ is not instantaneous unless much focused approach is employed. In this study, an ethnobotanical assessment criterion was used to assess and identify conservation status for most useful plants. To achieve this, open ended questionnaires and focus group discussions were used for collecting ethnobotanical information from 37 traditional health practitioners on the use of herbal remedies against various respiratory diseases. Guideline by the international union for conservation of nature (IUCN) medicinal plant specialist group was used to assess qualitative distribution of indicator species through ethnographic methods. A protocol for conservation assessment management plan was used to prioritize limited number of species for ex-situ conservation. Ethnobotanical parameters, value–index and legislation-index were used for scoring in two-dimensional manner. Scoring analysis highly prioritized non-timber plants including Rubia cordifolia, Crassocephalum manii and Pavetta crassipes for conservation over timber species. From the findings, an ethnobotanical assessment criterion is recommended for total conservation of all plant categories in the wild including the often neglected non timber plant species.

Author(s) Details

J. N. Otieno
Institute of Traditional Medicine, Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences, P.O.Box 65001 Dar es salaam, Tanzania.

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Dictionary of Medicinal Plants – Scientific Names, Family and Selected Vernacular (English, Sinhala, Sanskrit and Tamil) Names | Book Publisher International

Medicinal plants have been known for centuries and are highly valued all over the world as a rich source of therapeutic agents of medicinal plants for public health care in developing nations [65]. Even today, the WHO estimates that up to 80 percent of the world population still relies mainly on traditional remedies such as herbs for their primary health care [13]. Ahmed et al. mentioned that according to a survey conducted by W.H.O., traditional healers treat 65% patients in Sri Lanka and 80% in India [3]. According to the WHO, around 21,000 plant species have the potential for being used as medicinal plants. Different ethnic and different language speaking peoples are living in Asian countries.

Plants are commonly known by their local names in every part of the world. These local names play a very important role in ethno-botanical study of a specific tribe or region. Local names given to plants by indigenous people in their local dialects often reflect a broad spectrum of information on their understanding of plants. Most often, the local names are given based on some salient features, e.g. appearance, shape, size, habit, habitat, smell, taste, colour, utility, and other peculiar character, etc. of the plants [15]. These practical, meaningful, easily understandable and rememberable local names are disappearing rapidly along with the culture and tradition of the tribal group of Asian countries. As a preliminary step for documentation purpose, Authors were planned to publish this Dictionary of Medicinal Plants with 906 Medicinal plants, its Scientific names, family and common vernacular (English, Sinhala, Sanskrit and Tamil) Names.

Author(s) Details

Sri Ranjani Sivapalan
University of Jaffna, Sri Lanka.

Vinotha Sanmugarajah
University of Jaffna, Sri Lanka.

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