Soil Reactions, Plant Nutrients and Crop Relationship | Chapter 04 | Research and Development in Agricultural Sciences Vol. 2

This paper centers on the relationship between soil reaction and plant nutrients as they affect crop production. Soil pH affects nearly all physico-chemical and biological activities in the soil. A farmer whose ultimate aim is to minimize input in order to maximize output is expected to have an in-depth knowledge of soil pH especially in tropical region where soil acidity is one of the predominant factors in crop production.

Author(s) Details

Ayeni, Leye Samuel
Department of Agricultural Science, Adeyemi College of Education, Ondo, Nigeria.

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Prospection of Endophyte Microorganisms from Bauhinia monandra Leaves with Mainly Identification of Actinobacteria | Chapter 06 | Advances and Trends in Biotechnology and Genetics Vol. 1

The present work aimed the prospection of microorganisms from Bauhinia monandra leaves, with the purpose to identify endophytics to obtain strains with possible biotechnological applications. B. monandra leaves, disinfected with hypochlorite solution, were macerated in phosphate buffered saline and seeded in ten culture media containing antibacterial or antifungal agents. The endophytic filamentous fungus strains detected belonged to the genera Penicillium, Curvullaria and Aspergillus. Non-filamentous endophyte bacteria were grouped in the genera Bacillus, Burkholderia, Enterobacter and strains of endophytic Actinobacteria were classified as Streptomyces and Nocardiopsis. The isolation of endophytic microorganisms with nine culture media revealed better bacteria development with L-arginine agar; inorganic salt starch agar and potato dextrose agar were superior to Actinobacteria and fungus strains, respectively. The present study revealed the predominance of the genus Penicillium in leaves of B. monandra. This work introduces the first data of identification from endophyte Actinobacteria in the leaves of B. monandra.

Author(s) Details

Rosilma de O. Araujo-Melo
Departamento de Antibióticos, Centro de Biociências, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Avenida dos Economistas, S/N, Cidade Universitária, Recife-PE, CEP 52171-011, Brazil.

Thales Henrique B. de Oliveira
Departamento de Antibióticos, Centro de Biociências, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Avenida dos Economistas, S/N, Cidade Universitária, Recife-PE, CEP 52171-011, Brazil.
Departamento de Bioquímica, Centro de Biociências, UFPE, Avenida Moraes Rego, S/N, Cidade Universitária, Recife-PE, CEP 50670-420, Brazil.

Carlos Vinícius J. de Oliveira
Departamento de Antibióticos, Centro de Biociências, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Avenida dos Economistas, S/N, Cidade Universitária, Recife-PE, CEP 52171-011, Brazil.

Janete M. de Araújo
Departamento de Antibióticos, Centro de Biociências, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Avenida dos Economistas, S/N, Cidade Universitária, Recife-PE, CEP 52171-011, Brazil.

Kêsia X. F. R. de Sena
Departamento de Antibióticos, Centro de Biociências, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Avenida dos Economistas, S/N, Cidade Universitária, Recife-PE, CEP 52171-011, Brazil.

Luana Cassandra Breitenbach Barroso Coelho
Departamento de Bioquímica, Centro de Biociências, UFPE, Avenida Moraes Rego, S/N, Cidade Universitária, Recife-PE, CEP 50670-420, Brazil.

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Actinobacteria: A Renewable Source of Bioactive Molecules with Medical, Industrial and Pharmacological Importance | Chapter 04 | Advances and Trends in Biotechnology and Genetics Vol. 1

The Actinobacteria receive much attention, since they produce a wide variety of metabolites, including antibiotics, antitumor agents, antioxidant molecules and enzyme inhibitors. These bacteria can be found in various habitats, including soil, ocean, extreme environments, mangrove, lichen, plants, and animals. The classification of Actinobacteria based upon the morphological observation, physiological and biochemical characteristics is not enough to differentiate the genera of this phylum. Following, a complementary identification is performed based on the distribution of specific constituents of the cellular wall, such as diaminopimelic acid and carbohydrates. With the advent of molecular biology, the identification of genera and species became more reliable. The screening of microbial natural products has become an important route to discover new bioactive compounds in order to develop new therapeutic agents. Actinobacteria remains one of the leading producers of biopharmaceuticals; endophytic Actinobacteria also yield secondary metabolites with wide range of biological activity. This review focuses on gathering relevant information on identification, classification, chemical diversity of Actinobacteria, as well as reveals some biotechnological applications of these bacteria. Actinobacteria are microorganisms widely distributed in nature, inhabiting mainly soil, and plants. These prokaryotes are broadly responsible for the production of various metabolites commercially available, such as antibiotics, antifungal compounds, enzymes, and chemotherapeutic agents. Endophytic Actinobacteria also produce active substances, and have important functions in the development of plants with agro-industrial interest, as well as in research efforts against multidrug-resistant bacteria, in order to find new effective compounds that can be used in clinical routine. This review provides data with a focus on spreading the importance of these microorganisms, as well as turns the attention to the fact that more studies are necessary for application of these Actinobacteria as innovative biotechnological tools.

Author(s) Details

Rosilma de O. Araujo-Melo
Departamento de Antibióticos, Centro de Biociências, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Avenida dos Economistas, S/N, Cidade Universitária, Recife-PE, CEP 52171-011, Brazil.

Thales Henrique B. de Oliveira
Departamento de Antibióticos, Centro de Biociências, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Avenida dos Economistas, S/N, Cidade Universitária, Recife-PE, CEP 52171-011, Brazil.
Departamento de Bioquímica, Centro de Biociências, UFPE, Avenida Moraes Rego, S/N, Cidade Universitária, Recife-PE, CEP 50670-420, Brazil.

Carlos Vinícius J. de Oliveira
Departamento de Antibióticos, Centro de Biociências, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Avenida dos Economistas, S/N, Cidade Universitária, Recife-PE, CEP 52171-011, Brazil.

Janete M. de Araújo
Departamento de Antibióticos, Centro de Biociências, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Avenida dos Economistas,S/N, Cidade Universitária, Recife-PE, CEP 52171-011, Brazil.

Kêsia X. R. F. de Sena
Departamento de Antibióticos, Centro de Biociências, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Avenida dos Economistas, S/N, Cidade Universitária, Recife-PE, CEP 52171-011, Brazil.

Luana Cassandra Breitenbach Barroso Coelho
Departamento de Bioquímica, Centro de Biociências, UFPE, Avenida Moraes Rego, S/N, Cidade Universitária, Recife-PE, CEP 50670-420, Brazil.

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View Volume: https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/atbg/v1