Turkey Magnetite-apatite Deposits Using the Example of the Pinarbaşi (Bulam) Deposit in Adiyaman, Southeastern Turkey | Chapter 01 | Advances in Applied Science and Technology Vol. 7

The magnetite-apatite ore deposits of Turkey occure along the Southeast Anatolian Trust Belt of Turkey. There are three structural zones, Pütürge Massif and Malatya Metaphorites in the west, Bitlis Massif in the east, which have gained their present position by transportations during thrusts developed in the Miocene tectonics of Southeastern Anatolia. These in greenschist facies of a regional metamorphism metamorphised and formed deposits are Avnik and Ünaldı in Bitlis Massif and Pınarbaşı Malatya Metaphorites. The most common property of the ores deposits is that the ores depend on greenschists and found as lenses of massive, banded and dissiminited of martitized magnetite and fluorapatite.

In the area of the Pınarbaşi deposit listed here as an example crop out the Precambrian (Pütürge Metamorphites), the Eocene (Maden Complex), the Permo-Carboniferous (Malatya Metamorphites), the Tertiary, the Quaternary conglomerates and the alluvial formations. The Malatya Metamorphites are in an area thrust over the Maden Complex. From bottom to top, the area includes chlorite schists, calc schists and recrystallized limestone. Abundant rock-forming minerals in the area include chlorite, mica, quartz and calcite. The existing mineral facies indicate that ore deposits in the area metamorphosed as at least one regional barrow type in the green schist facies under 400°C temperature and 0.4 MPa pressure, and they depend on contact and retrograde metamorphism. As a result of this process, the area’s ore deposits are highly folded and faulted. The ores consist of magnetite, hematite (specularite) and goethite. The important gangue minerals are fluorapatite, quartz, chlorite and micas. Rarely observed allanite, monazite, xenotime and zirconia. Geologic and geochemistry data indicate that educts of the recent metamorphosed rocks’ chlorite schist were pelitic sediments.

The trace and rar earth elements analysis indicat that a harmonious relation determined between Fe and P2O5 in all ore deposits. The most enriched elenents in relation to Clarke values are P (8-17 times), Fe (5-10 times) and V (3-6 times). The rocks, ores and minerals of the deposit are relatively poor in trace and rare earth elements. Magnetites contain approximately 900 ppm V, 300-700 ppm Mn, 60-180 ppm Cr and 40-150 ppm Ni.The total concentration of rare earths varies between 200-500 ppm. However, rare earth elements concentration of apatites varies between 3000-4000 ppm. Their normalized distributions according to chondrites are characterized by good separation and a marked Eu negative anomaly.

Levels of the 18O isotope showed that the formation temperature varied between 282-372 ºC. This temperature corresponds to the beginning of the green schist facies temperature of the regional metamorphism. Hydrogen isotope analysis reflects the sedimentary rock’s value and supports the geochemistry diagnosis. The radiometric age determination indicated two different age values, 66 and 48 Ma. The older age of 66 Ma explains the metamorphosis that evolved during the ophiolite development. The younger age of 48 Ma is interpreted as a second metamorphism, retrograde metamorphism or tectonic movement age.

Pınarbaşı deposit is defined as a Kiruna type sedimentary deposit. Total reserves amount to 66 Mt with 35.07wt % Fe and 1.57wt % P2O5 content. The operation of the ore is currently in planning.

Author(s) Details

Prof. Dr.-Ing., Hüseyin Çelebi
Mersin University, Department of Geology, 33343 Mersin, Turkey.

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Extrapulmonary Tuberculosis- A Diagnostic Conundrum! | Chapter 01 | New Insights into Disease and Pathogen Research Vol. 2

Introduction: Tuberculosis continues to be the ninth leading cause of death worldwide. Pulmonary tuberculosis [PTB] being an infectious form of the disease receives greater attention & significance; while, the silent forms of disease like latent tuberculosis infection [LTBI] or extrapulmonary [EPTB] form of disease remains as the most neglected ones for reasons well known. Exact data on the disease burden from developing countries is missing due to the existing poor reporting system by both the patient and health care services.

Aim: To know the burden of the disease in a tertiary care hospital of India. To study the clinical trends in the disease, and the utility of various diagnostic modalities in diagnosis of the same. To identify the Mycobacterial species and perform drug susceptibility test.

Materials and Methods: A cross sectional study was carried out for a period of two years. A total of 147 samples were received and tested for extrapulmonary tuberculosis using a combination of bacteriological, cytological, histological and biochemical techniques to achieve proper diagnosis of EPTB.

Results: Bacteriologically, 26% of the specimens were positive for EPTB. Mycobacterial culture positivity was noted in 18%. Smear by Ziehl Nielsen stain was positive in 9%. Young adults and females predominated the study group and positive cases. A combination of culture media both solid and liquid maximized the yield of Mycobacteria. Lymph node tuberculosis was found to be the predominant type followed by others. Fifteen percent of the strains were found to be resistant to the first line drugs used in treatment of tuberculosis. Cytology and biochemical findings were found to be less specific in diagnosis of extrapulmonary tuberculosis. Rapid immuno chromatographic test called MPT64 Antigen test was very useful for presumptive identification of M.tb complex with reported sensitivity and specificity of 99% and 100%.

Conclusion: Extra pulmonary tuberculosis is seen in a substantial number of the symptomatic patients. Hence, attention should be paid towards its proper and early diagnosis followed by rational management, as if neglected may lead to associated complications and sequalae. Use of combination of media and methods enhances the diagnostic sensitivity. Further research is needed to evaluate specific reasons for why the disease is more common in young adults and females. It is wiser to read cytology and biochemical findings in light of bacteriological results as alone they are less specific. Resistance is emerging to anti tuberculosis drugs even in extra pulmonary form of disease. Hence the use of anti-tuberculosis drugs has to be justified as per the laboratory results for drug susceptibility test.

Author(s) Details

Dr. Sarwat Fatima
Department of Microbiology, Ayaan institute of Medical Sciences & Research Center, Moinabad, Telangana, India.

N. M. Aleemuddin
Department of Pulmonology, Deccan College of Medical Sciences, Hyderabad, India.

F. Fakeha
Department of Pathology, Osmania Medical College, Hyderabad, India.

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Prevalence and Intensity of Plasmodium falciparum Malaria and the Challenges of Microscopy and Rapid Test Diagnosis (RDT) Diagnostic methods in North- Western Nigeria | Chapter 11 | Current Trends in Disease and Health Vol. 1

Aims: The study was undertaken to estimate the prevalence and intensity of Plasmodium falciparum infection, in randomly selected areas of north-western Nigeria and to evaluate the efficiency of microscopy and rapid diagnostic test (RDT) in detecting and determining intensity of P. falciparum infection.

Study Design: The study was conducted in north –western Nigeria, between April and August, 2013.

Methodology: A total of one thousand four hundred and seventy (1,470) blood samples were collected into EDTA sample bottles. Rapid one step malaria HRP2 Rapid test was carried out and  stained in Giemsa and examined by thick and thin blood smears using microscope (X 40 objective ) (Cheesbrough, 2016). 

Results: A total of eight hundred and thirty four 834(56.5%) cases were positive microscopically while two hundred and eighty seven 287(19.52%) were positive with the RDT which showed high significance (P<0.05) in the efficiency of the diagnostic methods. Low intensity (+) was higher in 542 (36.87%) and different significantly within the states (P<0.05).The RDT showed high specificity of 68.21% while a higher sensitivity of47.68% was observed from the microscopy results which differed significantly (P<0.05) when the two methods were compared.

Conclusion: The results of the study established that P. falciparum malaria was endemic in the region with a level of intensity. Microscopy was the most specific method of falciparum malaria diagnosis.

Author(s) Details

M. H. Ruqayyah
Federal University Dutse, Jigawa State, Nigeria.

I. H. Nock
Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria.

I. S. Ndams
Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria.

Prof B. D. J. George
Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria.

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