Self Potential, an electrical geophysical method is chiefly used in mineral prospecting. Vertical and lateral variations in the conductivity of earth materials produce variations in the potential distribution as measured on the surface thereby giving information of the sub-surface. The SP method involves the measurement of the differences in natural ground potential between any two points on the ground surface which ranges from less than a millivolt to over ten volts. This method has some mineralogical implications in that it has been used in massive base metal exploration to detect the presence of massive ore bodies. It has also been extended to groundwater and geothermal investigations, environmental and engineering applications to; map seepage flow associated with dams, in geological mapping and in delineation of shear zones and near-surface faults. This work seeks to x-ray the principles of SP survey with evidence from the survey carried out in some parts of Southern Umuahia, Abia State, Nigeria. Seven locations where SP survey was carried out showed a negative anomaly of -2mV to -600mV and a positive anomaly of 5mV to 277mV distributed within the study area. It was observed that the potential anomalies are due to some conductive minerals like graphite and sulphide ore bodies. The Iso-potential contour map of the study area was made with an interval of 50mV which reveals the mineralogical trend of sulphide and graphite ore bodies.
Azunna, Daniel. E. Department of Physics, Clifford University, Owerrinta, Abia State, Nigeria.
Chukwu, Godwill. U. Department of Physics, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike, Abia State, Nigeria.
Background: Sufficient consumption of fruits and vegetables, as recommended by the World Health Organization and Food and Agriculture of the United Nations, has been greatly linked with a lowered risk of chronic/lifestyle diseases, digestive problems, mental health problems, eye problems, high blood pressure and body weight management. It is recommended for adults to eat at least five servings of fruits and vegetables per day. Unfortunately, most Liberians do not follow such a healthy dietary pattern. Be it as it may, this book focuses on the health benefits of fruits and vegetables in Liberian cuisine.
Methods: For this narrative review, appropriate scientific articles were considered from mainly Google Scholar using the keywords health benefits, fruits, vegetables, Liberian cuisine, vitamins and minerals. An observational study was also conducted using mini nutrition assessment tool and descriptive analysis.
Results: In spite of the protective effects of fruits and vegetables as suggested by existing data, most Liberians still consume low amounts of them. This is evident by the observational study conducted and the information gathered from secondary data sources. It is important to deploy health education strategies to promote fruit and vegetable consumption among Liberians.
Conclusion: It is obvious that the eating patterns of most Liberians are unhealthy. The risks involved by not including fruits and vegetables into the daily meals of Liberians are fatal and could cause damages to several organs. Realizing the fact that medical bills for treating lifestyle or chronic diseases are far more expensive than practically handling those risk factors that contribute to their emergence, it is fair enough for all Liberians to make great use of the fruits and vegetables they consume on a seasonal basis.
Forkpah Pewee University of Liberia, Fendell Campus, Monrovia, Liberia.