Assessment of Rainfall Scenario in Determining Flood Risk at Terengganu Watershed Malaysia | Chapter 02 | Emerging Issues in Science and Technology Vol. 3

The future of climate lies on the hand of individual who is an active member that contributes input in the biosphere. The amount of climate change will largely influence the water flow in the river through the emission of solar radiation, increase in temperature, heat-trapping gases. There is a need to control pollution, flood hazard, check water quality and monitor sediments and water flow in the drainage basin. Soil and Water Assessment Tools SWAT is one of the best methods of the application being used for hydrologic assessment as well as monitoring events that occur in the catchment studies. Mitigation can simply determine how to reduce the human hazard, in controlling the climate change that affects water flow in river Terengganu. The Soil Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) provides the simulated rainfall from 1973 to 2017. The precipitation and other weather parameters were used for the purpose of this study and the resultant effect is the production of predictive flood hazard event within the catchment area of Kuala Terengganu.


Author(s) Details

Ibrahim Sufiyan
Department of Geography, Nasarawa State University, Keffi, Nigeria.

K. D. Mohammed
Department of Geography, Nasarawa State University, Keffi, Nigeria.

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Setting Regulatory Limits for Sulphur Content in Premium Motor Spirit (PMS) for Degraded Vehicles | Chapter 03 | Emerging Issues in Science and Technology Vol. 2

The need for a cleaner environment free from unhealthy levels of Sulphur IV oxide (SO2) has prompted this study of setting regulatory limits of sulphur content in Premium Motor Spirit (PMS) especially that used in Nigeria. This study has used secondary and primary data to show the extent of damage to the environment, caused by high sulphur content in the PMS we use especially with degraded vehicles. The method adopted for this studyinvolved field monitoring at three number locations (Choba junction, Rumuokoro junction and Alakahia off the East-west road), to obtain meteorological parameters via installed weather stations, traffic count through positioned Close Circuit Television (CCTV) cameras and sampled vehicular exhaust emission of SO2 from randomly selected vehicles. Results showed that vehicles using PMS distributed in Nigeria emits as high as 210.6 mg/m3 and as low as 0.0 mg/m3 SO2 from their exhausts. For the Department of Petroleum Resources (DPR) and the Ministry of Environment (MENv) to achieve its environmental limit of 0.15 mg/m3 ambient level of SO2, they need to reduce the sulphur content limit in PMS supplied to Nigeria to 0.01% weight or restrict the movement of vehicles that emit more than 30.6mg/m3 SO2(degraded vehicles) from their exhausts.

Author(s) Details

Terry Henshaw
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria.

Ify L. Nwaogazie
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria.

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A Matrix Vector Transition Net Implementation | Chapter 01 | Advances in Mathematics and Computer Science Vol. 1

Aims: Classic Petri nets also known as place transition nets provide many interesting and useful features for system modeling. They are however limited by the place types that are used. A novel approach is presented in this work. A matrix vector transition net model is created and is used to model complex system behavior. This solution extends the modeling power of normal Petri nets.

Proposed Solution: A traditional Petri net is modified to create a matrix vector transition net (MVTN). The idea is to combine the ideas from normal Petri net semantics with a matrix vector approach.

Implementing the Matrix Vector Transition Net: Ordinary Petri net places are replaced with matrices or vectors. The input and output arcs must have a specific function matrix that determines firing. Firing and behavior remain conceptually and functionally similar to that of a Petri net. It is possible to interchange row and column vectors. The behavior of matrix transition nets must elicit similar behavior to that of a place transition net. Instead of normal tokens, matrix elements are used. The matrix vector type of structure increases the modeling power, abstraction capacity and the complexity of the net.

Case Study: To illustrate this work a toy case of an abstract network structure containing processing elements is used to illustrate the use of the matrix vector transition net structure.

Results and Findings: The behavior of matrix transition nets is shown to be similar in principle to that of a place transition net. However instead of tokens, matrix elements are used. It is possible to construct a symbolic marking graph or reachability graph for the system This type of structure definitely increases the modeling power, abstraction capacity and the complexity of the net. The matrix transition net could be useful for certain types of communication system problems and complex system interfacing.  Several other uses can be found for this approach in both computing and modeling.

AuthorĀ  Details:

Tony Spiteri Staines

Department of Computer Information Systems, University of Malta, MSIDA MSD 2080, Malta.

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View Volume: https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/amacs/v1