Hydro-Fracture Resistance Properties of Hura crepitans Seed Relevant to Handling and Processing | Chapter 08 | Current Trends in Food Science Vol. 1

During harvesting, handling and dehulling, agricultural materials including seeds were subjected to several static and dynamic pressures that may affect the quality of the kernel if not properly handled. This work therefore studied the effects of moisture content on some compressive properties of Hura crepitans as a preparation for the design of the seed dehulling machine. Hura crepitans seeds were conditioned to four different moisture contents (9.3, 12.6, 15.6, and 17.8% db). The effect of moisture contents on energy at yield, energy at break, compressive load at yield, compressive load at break, compressive strain at yield and at break and compressive stress at yield and at break were studied using Instron testing machine (Model 3369). The results of the experiment show an increase in load at break from 44.87 to 356.27N; Load at yield from 10.87 to 83.06 N; and decrease in energy at yield from 0.262 to 0.021J; energy at break from 2.292 to 0.258 J; compressive strain at yield from 0.311 to 0.160 mm/mm; compressive stress at break from 2.809 to 0.384 mm, with increase in moisture in the range studied. The effect of moisture content on all the properties studied were significant (p> 0.05). These result showed that the compressive force properties of Hura crepitans is moisture dependent. The data reported in this work will be of great help during the design of Hura crepitans seed harvester, dehuller, cleaning and sorting equipment for the seed.

Author(s) Details

D. O. Idowu
Department of Agricultural Engineering, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomoso, Oyo State, Nigeria.

T. P. Abegunrin
Department of Agricultural Engineering, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomoso, Oyo State, Nigeria.

F. A. Buhari
Department of Agricultural Engineering, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomoso, Oyo State, Nigeria.

O. O. Ajadi
Department of Agricultural Engineering, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomoso, Oyo State, Nigeria.

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View Volume: https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/ctfs/v1

Palm Nut Dimensional Relationship Relevant to its Primary Processing | Chapter 03 | Advances in Applied Science and Technology Vol. 6

This chapter attempts to solve the problem associated with separation of cracked nut mixture to obtain high purity kernels. Palm nuts used were obtained from Ideas Oil mill, Ibesikpo, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. The nuts were treated as appropriate and experimental data generated. Various models based on the relationship between nut dimensions (minor diameter d1, intermediate diameter d2, major diameter d3 and shell thickness ts) were developed for the Dura and Tenera palm nut varieties. The models were aimed to tackle the following challenges: design of silo for palm kernels and nuts storage; conditioning of nuts to have optimum moisture to enhance the cracking of nuts to release whole kernels, energy and power requirements to effectively cracked nuts to have little or no objectionable damage to the kernels; the separation techniques and methods to obtain shell fragments that could be easier for separation to obtain kernels of high purity. These models developed were tested and validated. The models could be used to aid in the following: design of storage facilities for kernels and nuts respectively; application of energy that would crack nuts to yield  high percentage of whole kernel; determination of optimum moisture content that would enhance cracking of nuts to release whole kernels; application of appropriate operating conditions to enhance the separation of cracked nut mixture to yield kernels of high purity through appropriate techniques/methods coupled with production of small shell fragments that are of comparable sizes with kernels.

Author(s) Details

Orua Antia
Department of Agricultural and Food Engineering, University of Uyo, Uyo, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria.

William Olosunde
Department of Agricultural and Food Engineering, University of Uyo, Uyo, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria.

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View Volume: https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/aast/v6