Malaria Related Deaths among Children with Manifestations of Fever Symptoms on Admission in a Secondary Health Care Institution in Western Region of Ghana – A Retrospective Study | Chapter 3 | Current Trends in Disease and Health Vol. 3

Background: Malaria is a major contributor to deaths in children especially in sub-Saharan Africa. Children less than five years of age are susceptible to malaria infection in endemic regions leading to serious complications. Malaria causes death in children either directly through Cerebral Malaria (CM) and Severe Malaria Anaemia (SMA) or indirectly through co-morbidity with pneumonia or a sequela like hypoglycaemia.

Methods: This retrospective study examined malaria-related deaths among children at Effia-Nkwanta hospital within a study period of 3 years.

Results: A total of 1,416 medical records were reviewed, out of which 223 were medical records of children with fatal outcomes. Deaths over the study period due to all causes were 15.7% (223/1416) and confirmed malaria was 13.7% (40/292). Deaths due to all causes and confirmed malaria decreased from 21.6% and 24.3% in 2010 to 11.1% and 4.4% in 2012, respectively. Anti-malarial testing was done for 152 of the children with 40 positive and 112 negative results. Seventy-one children had no malaria testing done on them, with 23.4% in 2010 40.3% in 2011 and 35.5% in 2012. Anti-malarial treatment was administered to 83% of children who tested negative and 80% of children without anti-malarial testing.

Conclusion: Deaths in the children declined from 2010 to 2012 in this study. Despite this improvement, there was poor anti-malarial testing and improper use of anti-malarial treatment. National malaria programs should ensure improvement in anti-malarial testing and strict adherence to the anti-malarial treatment protocol.

Author(s) Details

Verner N. Orish

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, School of Medicine, University of Health and Allied Sciences, Ho, Volta Region, Ghana.

Adekunle O. Sanyaolu,  

AMOOF Healthcare Consulting, Canada.

Mahama Francois,

Ho Polytechnic, Ho, Volta Region, Ghana.

Bruku K. Silverius,

Takoradi Polytechnic, Sekondi-Takoradi, Sekondi, Western Region, Ghana.

Onyekachi S. Onyeabor,

Department of Community Health and Preventive Medicine, Morehouse School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.

Chuku Okorie,

Essex County College, Newark, New Jersey, USA.

Nnaemeka C. Iriemenam,

Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, College of Medicine, University of Lagos, Idi-Araba, Lagos, Nigeria. View Book –


The Population Dynamics of the Mudskipper, Periophthalmus barbarus (LINNEAUS 1766) (TELEOSTEI, GOBIIDAE) and the Implication for Conservation and Management in the Mangrove Swamp of Iko River Estuary, Southeastern Nigeria | Chapter 05 | Recent Advances in Biological Research Vol. 3

The population dynamics of Periophthalmus barbarus in the mangrove swamp of Iko River estuary, southeast of Nigeria were obtained from a twenty four month length composition data ranging 4.6 – 14.5 cm total length (TL) (mean 9.1841± 1.6346: n = 2,876) corresponding to 1.16 – 50.6 g total weight (TW) (mean = 9.9626 ± 5.4796) the growth was exponential. The asymptotic length (L∞) of the Powell-Wetheral plot (L∞ = 15.03 cm) was seeded into FSAT II (FAO-ICLARM Stock Assessment Tools II) software to obtain best estimates of von Bertalanfy growth parameters as L∞ = 16.22 cm TL, growth coefficient (K) = 1.2 year-1, age of fish at zero length, to = 0.071, longevity, tmax = 2.5 years. The estimated growth performance index, φ’ = 2.449. Other FISAT II growth parameters were the amplitude of growth oscillation, C = 0.6 and the winter point, WP = 0.6, Rn = 0.3127. Mortality parameters were total mortality, Z = 479 year-1, natural mortality, M = 2.39 year-1 and fishing mortality, F was 2.40 year-1. Result indicate the fishery is optimally exploited with current exploitation rate, Ecur = 0.50 < Emax = 0.668 > Eopt = 0.5 which suggests stock optimal exploitation, corroborated by Z/K ration (3.184).  Ecur (0.5) means that 50% of the available stock is being fished annually. The length-at-first capture Lc = 7.33 cm TL and Lc/L∞ was 0.45, indicating the fish was yet to complete 55% of growth as at the time of capture at Lc, hence P. barbarus in the ecosystem is at the optimal level of exploitation as well as the presence of growth overexploitation. Thus to circumvent the consequences of growth overfishing, sustainable fisheries measures such as monitoring of fishing effort, use of selective gears and increase in mesh size should be encouraged, implemented and enforced. The study has revealed that P. barbarus population residing in the mangrove swamp of Iko River Estuary is experiencing exploitation rate close to the maximum sustainable yield amidst the presence of heavy fishing pressure. Moreover, the mudskipper fishery in this ecosystem is currently exhibiting growth overexploitation signs which could lead to severe implications on the population size and food security within vulnerable fishing households in the future. Therefore, urgent management interventions in the form of monitoring fishing efforts, return of captured juveniles back to the water body from the non-selective fishing gear and use of selective gear with large mesh size (to increase length at first capture) are needed to safeguard this important fish species from possible collapse in the future.

Author  Details:

Dr. Nsikak Abiaobo

Department of Zoology, Akwa Ibom State University, Ikot Akpaden, Mkpat Enin, P.M.B. 1167, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria.

Dr. Mfom Tmothy Udo

Department of Fisheries and Aquatic Environment Management, University of Uyo, P.M.B. 1017, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria.

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