Studies on Mycotoxin Contamination and Induced Biochemical Changes Associated with Some Important Medicinal Plants | Chapter 8 | Theory and Applications of Microbiology and Biotechnology Vol. 3

Studies were undertaken on mycotoxin contamination and induced biochemical changes in some important medicinal plants. For the purpose of study four important medicinal plants namely Azadirachta indica, Emblica officinalis, Plantago ovata and Vitex negundo were selected. Samples were collected from different localities of Uttarakhand (India). Mycotoxin producing fungi like A. flavus, A. ochraceus, F. verticillioides and Penicillium citrinum were recorded. In comparison to other mycotoxigenic fungi, percentage toxigenicity was higher in Aspergillus flavus. In case of E. officinalis, 32.69% isolates of A.flavus were toxigenic and produced aflatoxins up to 21 µg/ml in the liquid media followed by A. indica where 22.2% isolates produced aflatoxin in the range of 0.4-13.8 µg/ml. In case of V. negundo and P. ovata 14.28% and 8% isolates of A. flavus elaborated aflatoxin B1,B2 and aflatoxin B1 respectively at low concentration. Mycotoxin contamination in stored samples of E. officinalis and V. negundo showed aflatoxin B1 and aflatoxin B1,B2 as natural contaminant. Twenty eight percent (28%) samples of E. officinalis exhibited higher concentration of aflatoxins up to 0.98 µg/g whereas in case of V. negundo 6% samples were found naturally contaminated with aflatoxin B1. Alkaloid content of medicinal plant produce understudy was estimated in healthy as well as A. flavus infested samples.There was an indication of inhibition in the total alkaloid content due to the toxigenic strain of A. flavus. Statistical analysis of the results show a decline in the level of total alkaloid content due to fungal contamination significant at 5% level of significance. 

Author(s) Details

Dr. (Mrs.) Punam Kumari Singh 
Indira Gandhi National Open University, New Delhi, India.

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Food Condiment Series 1: Fungal Contamination of Two Food Condiments (Brachystegia eurycoma and Detarium macrocarpum) Sold in Some Local Markets in Rivers State | Chapter 04 | Advances and Trends in Biotechnology and Genetics Vol. 3

This work is aimed at identifying these organisms in order to reduce the contamination of food condiments. A survey of seed-borne fungi associated with the seeds of Brachystegia eurycoma and Detarium macrocarpum (Whole and Ground) obtained from two different local markets in Rivers State namely; Etche and Bori was conducted. Fungi were isolated using Standard Blotter Method and pure cultures of Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus spp, Botrydiplodia theobromae, Fusarium solani, Rhizopus stolonifer, Penicillium spp, Penicillium notatum and Fusarium moniliforme, were obtained on Potatoes Dextrose Agar (PDA). Comparing the fungal contamination of the food condiments Detarium macrocarpum and Brachystegia eurycoma from 2 different markets in Rivers State, shows that the fungi obtained from Etche Market has the highest percentage incidence of 181.83% as compared to Bori Market (79.16%). It shows that these legumes are good substrate, for the growth of pathogenic fungi that produce toxins that are detrimental to human health because of the diseases they cause. Fungi produce toxins which cause harm to us thus, consumers are advised to buy the whole seeds of (Brachystegia eurycoma and Detarium macrocarpum) and use immediately. Preservation of food condiments should be a major concern in order to improve food security and safe guard the health of the consumers.

Author(s) Details

Ikechi-Nwogu Chinyerum Gloria
Department of Plant Science and Biotechnology, Faculty of Science, University of Port Harcourt. Nigeria.

Chime Happy
Department of Plant Science and Biotechnology, Faculty of Science, University of Port Harcourt. Nigeria.

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