Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPHs) and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) Removal in Spent Synthetic-based Drilling Mud Using Organic Fertilizer | Chapter 07 | Emerging Issues in Science and Technology Vol. 2

Treatment and disposal of spent (used) drilling mud have become an important environmental challenge in the oil and gas industry. Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPHs) and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) constitute the major contaminants in spent drilling mud. In this study, five spent synthetic-based drilling mud samples were collected from five oil fields in the Niger Delta. Samples collected on day 0 were analyzed for TPHs and PAHs. Concentrations higher than the permissible regulatory limits were recorded. The efficacy of urea fertilizer in the remediation of TPH-and PAH-impacted mud was investigated. Six sub-samples and six control sub-samples were tested bi-weekly for 12 weeks with 20 g, 25 g, and 30 g doses of urea fertilizer per 20 L of spent mud for each of the five samples representing each individual oil field (marked A through E). Removal of TPHs and PAHs with urea fertilizer treatment proved to be fast and efficient. In 6 weeks, with a dose of 1.5 g/L, over 98% removal of TPHs was recorded, and more than 94% of PAHs, and in 12 weeks, more than 99.5% removal was recorded for both. The residual levels of TPHs and PAHs met Department of Petroleum Resources (DPR: Nigeria) and US EPA limits for land disposal. Mathematical models with a goodness of fit (R2) of 0.999, were developed to predict the rate of the degradation processes.

Author(s) Details

Felix Obinduka
Centre for Occupational Health, Safety and Environment, University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

Ify L. Nwaogazie
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

Onyewuchi Akaranta
Centre of Excellence, Centre for Oilfield Chemicals Research, University of Port Harcourt, Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

Gideon O. Abu
Department of Microbiology, University of Port Harcourt, Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

View Book: http://bp.bookpi.org/index.php/bpi/catalog/book/121

Three Dimensional Velocity Distribution Modelling of Nun River in Nigeria | Chapter 04 | Emerging Issues in Science and Technology Vol. 2

In this study, hydrodynamics and sediment concentration equations of partial differential in 3-dimensions were solved using finite difference methods, the Crank Nicolson procedure to predict both sediment concentration and velocity profile of Nun River. The computer software (EKU2.8) which is a modification of the Navier Stoke’s equations was employed for discretization of Nun River stretch of 2,000 m into 2,245 rectangular meshes and simulation of the river’s flow velocity distribution. The code was validated by using the field water current measurements obtained from a selected stretch of the river. Average predicted velocities of 0.85 m/s, 1.542 m/s and 0m/s compared favorably with 0.8m/s, 1.475 m/s and 0.09m/s obtained from field measurement for upstream, midstream and downstream boundaries. The predicted results have approximate correlation coefficients of 0.96 for velocity distribution using Pearson product-moment method. The model proved very useful in predicting the velocity distribution of Nun River; higher versus lower velocities at inner and outer bends, with resultant effect of erosion and sediment deposition accordingly. The result of this study may be considered an important contribution to the improvement of sediment and erosion risk management.

Author(s) Details

Desmond U. Nwoko
Centre for Occupational Health, Safety and Environment, University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

Ify L. Nwaogazie
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

Charles C. Dike
Centre for Occupational Health, Safety and Environment, University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

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Heavy Metals Removal From Spent Synthetic-Based Drilling Mud Using Nano Zero-Valent Iron (nZVI) | Chapter 05 | New Insights on Chemical Research Vol. 1

Management of waste generated from oil and gas activities in the Niger Delta, is a major environmental challenge given that if the spent mud is disposed without proper treatment, the heavy metals will pose a lot of health risks to human through ingestion or inhalation. The heavy metals are also toxic to marine organisms, if disposed into the sea, untreated. Spent synthetic drilling mud is a major waste stream, among its components, are heavy metals. Samples collected on day 0 and biweekly were digested and analysed using the atomic absorption spectrometer (AAS). With nano Zero-Valent Iron, nZVI, concentration of 0.75mg/L of the spent mud, more than 95% removal were recorded for most metals in 6 weeks and over 99% in 12 weeks. The residual heavy metal concentrations met global limits for effluent disposal. Mathematical models with the goodness of fit, R2 of 0.999, were developed to predict the removal process.

Author(s) Details

Dr. Obinduka Felix
Centre for Occupational Health, Safety and Engineering, University of Port-Harcourt, Nigeria.

Prof. Ify L. Nwaogazie
Department of Civil and Environment Engineering, University of Port-Harcourt, Nigeria.

Prof. Onyewuchi Akaranta
Centre of Excellence, Centre for Oilfield Chemicals Research, University of Port Harcourt, Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

Prof. Gideon O. Abu
Department of Microbiology, University of Port Harcourt, Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

View Volume: http://bp.bookpi.org/index.php/bpi/catalog/book/105