Research on Containment of Ebola – Steps to Prevent Spread of Emerging Infectious Diseases: The Nigeria Example | Chapter 2 | Innovations in Medicine and Medical Research Vol.2

Emerging infectious diseases are diseases whose incidence in humans have increased in the past decades or threaten to increase in the near future. The epidemiological and Laboratory techniques needed to detect, investigate and contain a deliberate outbreak are the same as those used for natural outbreaks. The threat to Nigeria posed by the arrival in Lagos of a patient acutely ill with Ebola was potentially enormous. Six response teams were deployed within the Emergency Operations Centre; 1) Epidemiology/ Surveillance, 2) Case Management/ Infection Control, 3) Social mobilization, 4) Laboratory Services, 5) Point of Entry and 6) Management / Coordination. The strategy group reviewed and approved all of the teams work and needed resources. Eleven patients with laboratory confirmed Ebola were admitted and discharged, an additional patient was diagnosed at convalescent stage while eight patients died. 

Author(s) Details


Dr. Y. J. Peter
Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, College of Health Sciences, University of Abuja, Nigeria.

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Causes and Strategies for Curbing Market Fire in Nigeria | Chapter 06 | Emerging Issues in Science and Technology Vol. 2

Classification of causes of market fire in Nigeria is a study aimed at identifying and classifying the causes of market fire in Nigeria from the market users’ perspective. The study considered markets with high commercial activities and they were selected from three major cities, namely Lagos, Port Harcourt and Onitsha. Sixty questions on the causes of market fire were designed and distributed to 1074 shop owner/traders (respondents). The factor analysis method was adopted to streamline the questions into six categories and they were ranked. Results showed that the most common cause of market fire in Nigerian is “general storing” and this category attained a commonality ratio of 0.09284. Other causes of fire in markets included electrical installation which ranked second with a commonality ratio of 0.08071. The third to the sixth in that order are, disposal and knowledge of market locations, market exit points, regulations regarding markets and awareness and fire emergency plan. A design plan for an ideal market is provided taking cognizance of the following: ventilation, fire wall and roofs, building in clusters, electrical wiring in conduits, firefighting tools in place, general storage facilities, and dedicated parking area and that for smoking, etc. It is recommended that Government should institute fire professionals to handle design and operation of markets.

Author(s) Details

Nnamdi Ilodiuba
Centre for Occupational Safety, Health and Environment, University of Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria.

Ify L. Nwaogazie
Centre for Occupational Safety, Health and Environment, University of Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria.

John Ugbebor
Centre for Occupational Safety, Health and Environment, University of Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria.

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Prevalence and Pattern of Soil Transmitted Helminths (STHs) among Primary School Children at Nnewi, Nnewi- North Local Government Area, Anambra State, Nigeria | Chapter 11 | Recent Advances in Biological Research Vol. 6

Soil Transmitted Helminths (STHs) are of great Public Health importance. The present study was designed to evaluate the prevalence and pattern of STHs among Primary School Children at Nnewi, Nnewi North Local Government Area of Anambra State, Nigeria. 250 school children aged 1-12 years were randomly recruited from 5 major primary schools at Nnewi between January and June 2017. 95 (38%) were males while 155 (62%) were females. Stool samples were collected using universal sterile containers and examined microscopically using saline floatation method. Out of the 250 pupils examined, 105 (42%) were positive for at least one STH. 40 (42.1%) of the males examined were positive while 65 (41.9%) of the females were positive. There was no significant difference between sexes (P > 0.05). Children aged 1-5 years had the highest prevalence (62.2%), followed by those aged 6-8 years (33.3). Children aged 9-12 years had the least prevalence. Prevalence was significantly different between the different age groups (P < 0.05). Among the STHs isolated, Ascaris lumbricoides was the most prevalent (22%), followed by Hookworm (14%). The least prevalent was Trichuris trichiura (6%). No case of mixed infection was detected. The study concludes that STHs are of immense public Health importance in primary School children at Nnewi and efforts should be intensified to promote health education, personal hygiene and sanitation and regular deworming of school children. In conclusion, STHs have remained endemic in the study area in particular and Nigeria in general and is a major source of public health concern. Strict environmental sanitation, provision of adequate water supply, good housing, coupled with health education will go a long way towards its eradication. This should be the target of all governments in Nigeria.

Author(s) Details

Dr. S. N. Ukibe
Department of Prosthetics and Orthotics, School of Health Technology, Federal University of Technology, Owerri, Nigeria.

N. R. Ukibe
Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Faculty of Health Science and Technology, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nnewi Campus, Nigeria.

Dr. A. C. Obi-Okaro
Department of Community Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital, Nnewi Campus, Nigeria.

M. O. Iwueze
Department of Parasitology and Entomology, Faculty of Bioscience, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka Campus, Nigeria.

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A Facility-based Assessment of Internalized Stigma among Patients with Severe Mental Illnesses in Maiduguri, North-Eastern Nigeria | Chapter 05 | Emerging Research in Medical Sciences Vol. 3

Introduction: Public stigmatization of mental illnesses might lead to the internalization of the stigma by persons with mental illness (PWMIs) which might also lead to erosion of self-esteem and negative consequences on treatment outcome. This study assessed the prevalence of internalized stigma and analyzed its socio-demographic and clinical predictors among PWMIs in a sub-Saharan African mental health facility.

Methods: Patients with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and severe depression (n = 370) were randomly interviewed at the out-patient department of the Federal Neuropsychiatric Hospital, Maiduguri. They completed the sociodemographic and clinical proformata, Oslo social support scale, and an adapted version of the internalized stigma of mental illness scale (ISMI).

Results: A total of 83 subjects (22.5%) met the study’s criterion score for high internalized stigma. The independent predictors of high internalized stigma were; poor social support (Odds ratio, OR = 4.501, 95% CI = 2.423 – 8.363, p ≤ 0.001), supernatural aetiological beliefs (OR = 3.916, 95% CI = 2.322 – 6.606, p ≤ 0.001), seeking for unorthodox treatment (OR = 3.637, 95% CI = 2.073 – 6.308, p ≤ 0.001), full insight (OR = 3.595, 95% CI = 2.141 – 6.036, p ≤ 0.001), and presence of extra pyramidal side effects (OR = 12.201, 95% CI = 6.827 – 21.805, p ≤ 0.001).

Conclusion: Extra pyramidal side effects, poor social support and misconceptions about the aetiology of mental illnesses were the strongest predictors of internalized stigma among the subjects. The use of second generation antipsychotic medications, the engagement of members of the patients’ social support base and the incorporation of psycho-educational programmes to dispel ‘myths’ about the aetiology of mental illnesses in sub-Saharan Africa are hereby recommended.

Author(s) Details

Dr. Abdu W. Ibrahim [MBBS, MHPM, MSc (Pharm), FWACP (Psych)]
Department of Mental Health, College of Medical Sciences, University of Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria.

Dr. Yerima M. Mukhtar [MBBS, FWACP (Psych)]
Department of Mental Health, College of Medical Sciences, University of Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria.

Dr. Pindar K. Sadique [MBBS, FWACP (Psych)]
Department of Mental Health, College of Medical Sciences, University of Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria.

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Integrated Harvesting Techniques for African Egg Plant (Solanum macrocarpon L., cv. Igbagba) | Chapter 02 | Advances and Trends in Agricultural Sciences Vol. 2

Aim: This study elucidated the influence of harvesting height and frequency on concurrent seed and shoots production of the African Eggplant, Solanum macrocarpon L., cv. Igbagba/Igbo. The overall aim was to use the outcome to make recommendations that would enable African resource poor farmers secure the much needed increase in income for improved livelihoods.

Experimental Design: The experiment was a three (harvesting heights of 0.04 m, 0.08 m and 0.12 m) by five (harvesting frequencies of 1x per 1,2,3,4 and 5 weeks) factorial treatment arrangements fitted into randomized complete block with 4 replications. There was a control treatment which was harvested at ground level six weeks after planting for vegetative yield estimation and a check which was left for seeding without cutting. Net plot size was 5 m x 5 m (25 m2).

Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out between April to November 2004 on the National Horticultural Research Institute (NIHORT) Ibadan, Nigeria commercial vegetable production fields.

Methodology: Cumulative shoot fresh weight over the cutting period gave the shoot yield per plant. S. macrocarpon fruits were harvested, processed for seed and the seed weighed at 12% moisture content. Seed and shoot yield values were based on current NIHORT [National Horticultural Research Institute, Nigeria] prices of N450.00 per kilogram seed and N10.00 per kilogram shoot (US$1 = N80 at time of data collection, N is Nigerian Currency). Harvest index was calculated as seed weight/shoot weight which indicates changes in the pattern of dry matter partitioning into seed and shoot. Cutting Use Efficiency (CUE) was defined as the relative agronomic efficiency of using cutting over the control. Data were subjected to analyses of variance by the procedure of the Statistical Analysis System (SAS, 2005) using mean of 10 plants per treatment plot. Marginal revenue (MR) equals field price per kilogram multiplied by average yield (kg/ha) where field price is the market value of one kilogram of the crop. Marginal cost (MC) included those costs that are affected by the alternative treatment being considered (costs such as planting, land purchase, land preparation and transport that do not differ across treatments will be incurred regardless of which treatments is used). Data from both seasons (long cropping season and short cropping season) for each treatment were combined because there were no seasonal significant differences. Means were compared using Duncan’s Multiple Range Test (DMRT) at 5% significance.

Results: Shows that harvesting at 0.08 m above ground level was optimal and significantly highest for leaf, stem, shoot, seed and total yields except at 0.12 m above ground level for seed production. The result of financial profitability analysis shows that harvesting 0.08 m above ground level and fortnightly was most profitable for leaf, shoot and total yields compared to all the treatment combinations. Harvesting 0.12 m above ground level and monthly, however, was most profitable for seed production when compared to all treatments combinations.

Conclusion: The study concluded noting that integrated harvesting techniques for shoot (leaf + stem) and seed production proved economically viable and optimize resource use efficiency better than growing S. macrocarpon sole either for shoot or seed.

Author(s) Details

David O. Ojo (PhD),
NIHORT, PMB 5432, Idi Ishin, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria.

Joseph T. Atobatele
College of Staten Island, 2800 Victory Boulevard, Staten Island, New York 10314 718.982.2000, United States of America.

Jonas N. Chianu
Tropical Soil Biology and Fertility Institute of Centro Internacional Agricultura de Tropicale (TSBF-CIAT), World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF), Nairobi, Kenya.

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Rabies Virus Neutralizing Antibodies in Unvaccinated Rabies Occupational Risk Groups in Niger State, Nigeria | Chapter 13 | Current Trends in Disease and Health Vol. 1

Aims: To determine the presence of rabies virus neutralizing antibodies (rVNA) as well the potency of the rVNA in rabies occupational risk humans in Niger State of Nigeria.

Study Design: Cross-sectional study.

Place and Duration: Research was conducted at the Department of Veterinary Public Health, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria and Rabies Unit, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, CDC, Atlanta, USA, between May, 2012 and March, 2013.

Materials and Methods: A total of 185 human volunteers were recruited from rabies risk occupational groups who filled a structured questionnaire on their previous bite history and vaccination status, between May and July, 2012. A 2 ml each of blood from volunteers was collected and centrifuged at 3000 rpm for 10 minutes and sera separated into pre-labeled vacutainers. Standard Rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test (RFFIT) was used to detect the presence of rVNA in the sera. Further end point titration of the rVNA positive human sera was conducted to determine the potency.

Results: The results indicated that, detectable titre of rVNA was recorded in 16.4% (23 of 140) viable human sera screened. Although from the questionnaire survey, 21.7% (5 out of the 23 positives) responded to have been vaccinated over ten years prior. At least 3 of the respondents (1 dog butcher and 2 dog meat consumers) who responded not previously vaccinated had some neutralizing antibody titre range of 0.65 – 0.7 IU/ml which is above the minimum protective titre (0.5IU/ml) recommended by WHO. Similarly, 3 respondents (2 veterinarians and 1 animal health personnel) who responded to have been previously vaccinated (> 10 years earlier) yet had a high titre range of 0.5 – 5.4IU/ml. The highest specific rate for rVNA of 25% each was seen amongst the dog butchers and pet owners followed by hunters (20%) and dog meat consumers (14.8%). Up to 125 (67.6%) of the volunteers do consume dog meat with only 12 (9.6%) of them being dog butchers who source dogs for slaughter from households within and outside their territories.

Conclusion: Although the WHO minimum protective titre of rVNA is 0.5 IU/ml, the presence of relatively high titres amongst these risk groups in this report is an indication of a serious public health threat. This study recommends the vaccination of rabies high risk groups and further screening of rabies occupational risk and non risk groups in the study area and Nigeria at large. This study concludes that there is serological evidence of rVNA in the serum of vaccinated and unvaccinated rabies occupational risk groups in Nigeria. Rabies occupational risk groups are at risk of contracting rabies without overt symptoms of rabies, but serological response with some reasonable titres that may or may not be protective.

Author(s) Details

Dr.  A. Garba
Diagnostics and Extension Department, National Veterinary Research Institute, Vom, Nigeria.

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Prevalence and Intensity of Plasmodium falciparum Malaria and the Challenges of Microscopy and Rapid Test Diagnosis (RDT) Diagnostic methods in North- Western Nigeria | Chapter 11 | Current Trends in Disease and Health Vol. 1

Aims: The study was undertaken to estimate the prevalence and intensity of Plasmodium falciparum infection, in randomly selected areas of north-western Nigeria and to evaluate the efficiency of microscopy and rapid diagnostic test (RDT) in detecting and determining intensity of P. falciparum infection.

Study Design: The study was conducted in north –western Nigeria, between April and August, 2013.

Methodology: A total of one thousand four hundred and seventy (1,470) blood samples were collected into EDTA sample bottles. Rapid one step malaria HRP2 Rapid test was carried out and  stained in Giemsa and examined by thick and thin blood smears using microscope (X 40 objective ) (Cheesbrough, 2016). 

Results: A total of eight hundred and thirty four 834(56.5%) cases were positive microscopically while two hundred and eighty seven 287(19.52%) were positive with the RDT which showed high significance (P<0.05) in the efficiency of the diagnostic methods. Low intensity (+) was higher in 542 (36.87%) and different significantly within the states (P<0.05).The RDT showed high specificity of 68.21% while a higher sensitivity of47.68% was observed from the microscopy results which differed significantly (P<0.05) when the two methods were compared.

Conclusion: The results of the study established that P. falciparum malaria was endemic in the region with a level of intensity. Microscopy was the most specific method of falciparum malaria diagnosis.

Author(s) Details

M. H. Ruqayyah
Federal University Dutse, Jigawa State, Nigeria.

I. H. Nock
Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria.

I. S. Ndams
Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria.

Prof B. D. J. George
Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria.

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Reproducible Agrobacterium-mediated Transformation of Nigerian Cultivars of Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) | Chapter 01 | Advances and Trends in Agricultural Sciences Vol. 1

This study was carried out to develop transformation protocol for the possible improvement of local cultivars of tomatoes in Nigeria using complete randomized design (CRD). The research was conducted at the Plant Biotechnology Centre, International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA), Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria between May 2009 and December 2009. Seeds of three promising farmer preferred varieties of cultivars of tomatoes namely Ibadan local, Ife and JM94/46 were selected and cultivated in-vitro. Sterile cotyledon and leaf explants were transformed using Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain LBA4404 with plasmid (pOYE153). Transformed plants were analyzed using GUS assay and PCR methods. Results showed that leaf explants had higher transformation efficiency than cotyledon explants in the three cultivars. Ife cultivar had the best transformation efficiency in both explant types – leaf 42.5% and cotyledon 8.89%. Histochemical GUS assay of transgenic plants showed blue coloration in leaves, stems and roots. PCR analysis showed amplification of 600 bp fragments of GUS and nptII genes in the transgenic plants on 1.0% agarose gel. The GUS and nptII genes were successfully integrated into the three cultivars of tomatoes thereby providing a reliable transformation protocol for the genetic improvement of local cultivars of tomatoes for desirable traits such as longer shelf-life, pest and disease resistance, enhanced nutrients, higher soluble solids, etc. The GUS and nptII genes were successfully integrated into the three cultivars of tomatoes thereby providing a reliable transformation protocol for the genetic improvement of local cultivars of tomatoes for desirable traits such as longer shelf-life, pest and disease resistance, enhanced nutrients, higher soluble solids, etc.

Author(s) Details

Dr. S. O. A. Ajenifujah-Solebo

National Biotechnology Development Agency, Abuja, Nigeria.

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Prediction of Stature from Hand Anthropometry: A Comparative Study in the Three Major Ethnic Groups in Nigeria | Chapter 05 | Current Trends in Medicine and Medical Research Vol. 4

Introduction: Forensic anthropology is a branch of physical anthropology which interacts with other disciplines pertaining to the understanding of crime and its investigations. Many human features have been  used  to  estimate  stature  from  skeletal  remains  and  body  parts  owing  to  the  established relationship between stature and different parts of the body.

Aims: The study was carried out to establish standard anthropometric values for stature estimation by using hand length in the three major ethnic groups in Nigeria.

Study Design: Cross-sectional study.

Place and Duration of Study: University of Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria between January -April 2010.Methodology:A total of 407 right hand dominant students (210 males and 197 females) aged 18 –35 years who were purely of Hausa, Igbo and Yoruba origin by both parents and grandparents, are included in this study. Each person has been studied for measurements of stature, hand length and handbreadth.

Results: No significant difference was observed in stature and hand dimensions between the Igbos and Hausas. However the Yorubas are significantly shorter and have shorter hands than the Igbos and the Hausas. The males are significantly taller than the females in all the three tribes and have longer hands than the females in the Hausas and Igbos. Both the sexes of Yorubas are significantly shorter  than  the  Hausas  and  have  significantly  shorter  hands  than  the  Hausas  and  Igbos  when comparison was made between same sexes. The Yoruba females have shorter but wider hands than the Hausa females. No significant difference was observed in stature and hand dimensions between the Hausas and Igbos when compared between same sexes. Regression equations for estimation of stature were formulated for each ethnic group and both sexes.

Conclusion: The study supports the fact that variations are present not only between races but also among  ethnic  groups,  thus  formulae  derived  for  one  ethnic  group  and  both  sexes  may  not  be applicable  to  other  ethnic  group  and  sex. This  study  therefore  provides  standard  anthropometric values and regression equations for the three major ethnic groups in Nigeria..

Author(s) Details

A. I. Numan

Department of Human Anatomy, College of Medical Sciences, University of Maiduguri, P.M.B.1069, Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria.

M. O. Idris

Department of Human Anatomy, College of Medical Sciences, University of Maiduguri, P.M.B.1069, Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria.

J. V. Zirahei

Department of Human Anatomy, College of Medical Sciences, University of Maiduguri, P.M.B.1069, Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria.

D. S. Amaza

Department of Human Anatomy, College of Medical Sciences, University of Maiduguri, P.M.B.1069, Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria.

M. B. Dalori

Department of Human Anatomy, College of Medical Sciences, University of Maiduguri, P.M.B.1069, Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria.

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A Study of Scoliosis among Adolescent Female Patients at the National Orthopaedic Hospital, Enugu, Enugu State, Southeast Nigeria | Chapter 07 | Current Trends in Medicine and Medical Research Vol. 3

Background: Scoliosis is a musculoskeletal disorder characterised by a lateral bending or curvature of the spine.

Aim  of  Study: To  evaluate  the  prevalence,  distribution  and age  of  onset  of  adolescent  scoliosis among female patients at the National Orthopaedic Hospital, Enugu, Southeast, Nigeria.

Study  Design: This was  a retrospective epidemiological study of female scoliosis patients treated between 2005 and 2014. Data were obtained from patients medical records after due permission had been sought for and obtained from the hospital management. A total of 16,027 orthopaedic cases were analysed.

Results: The prevalence of female adolescent scoliosis within the 10-year period was 0.27%. The peak age of presentation was 11-12 years, followed by 13-14 years. The prevalence rate varied from one  year  to  the  other.  Thirty  per  cent  (30%)  of  the  presenting  females  were  children  of  traders followed closely (20%) by children of teachers.

Conclusion: Female  adolescent  scoliosis  was  not  common  at  the  National  Orthopaedic  Hospital, Enugu within the study period. In view of the public health importance of scoliosis in adolescent girls, screening tests should  be  done  periodically  to detect  cases  in  time  for effective  management  and orthotic  rehabilitation. Scoliosis  among  females  was  prevalent  but  not  common  at  the  National Orthopaedic Hospital, Enugu, Nigeria. It is suggested that periodic screening tests be performed to detect cases early. This will make for early diagnosis and proper treatment. Here lies the public health importance of adolescent scoliosis.

Author(s) Details

Dr Solomon, Nwabueze, David Ukibe

Department of Prosthetics and Orthotics, School of Health Technology, Federal University of Technology, Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria.

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