Post Exposure Prophylaxis for Occupational and Non-occupational Exposures to HIV: A 14-year Cohort Study in Lagos, Nigeria | Chapter 13 | New Insights into Disease and Pathogen Research Vol. 3

Background: Preventing new HIV infections among individuals is a major strategy to fight the HIV/AIDS scourge worldwide. In addition to the availability and use of highly active antiretroviral therapy to treat infections, short term treatment options to curtail the spread of potential infection of the virus in exposed individuals has been instituted. The various modes of exposure to the HIV virus and the risk of infection have been categorized with corresponding treatment options.

Aim: To evaluate the nature of exposure, time of presentation for treatment, adherence to follow up visits, treatment outcome and identify gaps of treatment procedures in a HIV treatment centre.

Study design: A retrospective cohort study.

Place and duration of study: The HIV treatment centre domiciled at the Clinical Sciences Department of the Nigerian Institute of Medical Research, Lagos, Nigeria from January 2006 to September 2019.

Methodology: A database retrospective review was conducted for adult patients who were treated for post exposure prophylaxis during the study period. A total of 422 patients whose records met the inclusion criteria were reviewed. Data were analyzed and presented using descriptive statistics.

Results: The mean age of the patients was 31.5 ± (10.1) years and higher proportions of the age group were <30 years (52.1%). Majority were females (71.6%), single (63%), had tertiary level of education (68.5%), were employed (70.6%) and had high risk exposures (76.3%). The most commonly prescribed regimen was LPV/r +AZT/3TC (56.2%).More than half (65.9%) had non-occupational exposures and overall, 97.2% presented for treatment within 72hours of exposure but only1.6% completed the follow up visits.

Conclusion: Treatment outcome appears good because no sero-conversion was reported or recorded. The younger age group had higher incidence of rape which was mainly among students which calls for urgent attention. There was a high incidence of needle stick injury among health care workers. There is a need to devise strategies to encourage completion of follow up visits.

Author(s) Details

S. O. Ekama
Department of Clinical Sciences, Nigerian Institute of Medical Research Lagos, Nigeria.

Dr. T. A. Gbajabiamila
Department of Clinical Sciences, Nigerian Institute of Medical Research Lagos, Nigeria.

Dr. D. A. Oladele
Department of Clinical Sciences, Nigerian Institute of Medical Research Lagos, Nigeria.

Dr. A. N. David
Department of Clinical Sciences, Nigerian Institute of Medical Research Lagos, Nigeria.

O. C. Ezechi
Department of Clinical Sciences, Nigerian Institute of Medical Research Lagos, Nigeria.

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Consensus Summit: Lipids and Cardiovascular Health in the Nigerian Population | Chapter 09 | Current Trends in Food Science Vol. 1

Aims: To issue a consensus statement on Lipids and Cardiovascular Health and the impact of their interrelationship in Nigerian Population.

Study Design: Experts from a range of relevant disciplines, deliberated on different aspects of Lipids and Cardiovascular Health in the Nigerian Population at a Summit.

Place and Duration of Study: The Summit was held in April 2016 at the Nigerian Institute of Medical Research.

Methodology: Presentations were made on central themes after which expert participants split into four different groups to consider the questions relevant to different sub themes of the title. Consensus was arrived at, from presentations of groups at plenary.

Conclusion: With the increase in the prevalence of NCDs, especially Cardiovascular Disease in Nigeria, and the documented evidence of deleterious effects of lipids, the expert panel called for an urgent need to advocate for the general public and health professionals to make heart-friendly choices in food consumption.

Author(s) Details

K. K. Akinroye
Nigerian Heart Foundation, Nigeria.

Y. A. Olukosi
Nigerian Institute of Medical Research, Nigeria.

T. Atinmo
Department of Human Nutrition, University of Ibadan, Nigeria.

O. Omueti
Nigerian Heart Foundation, Nigeria.

C. F. Babasola
Lead Nutrition Consultant, Xpert Solutions, Nigeria.

O. Idigbe
Nigerian Institute of Medical Research, Nigeria.

A. Isah
Department of Medicine, Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, University of Benin, Nigeria.

C. O. Isokpunwu
Department of Nutrition, Federal Ministry of Health, Nigeria.

O. Mobolaji-Lawal
Nigerian Heart Foundation, Nigeria.

A. Nasidi
Nigeria Centre for Disease Control, Nigeria.

O. J. Odia
Department of Medicine, University of Port-Harcourt, Nigeria.

O. B. Ogunmoyela
Post Graduate School, Bells University of Technology, Ota, Nigeria.

O. Okojie
Department of Nutrition, Federal Ministry of Health, Nigeria.

B. J. C. Onwubere
Department of Medicine, University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital Enugu, Nigeria.

A. Osibogun
Department of Community Health, College of Medicine, University of Lagos, Nigeria.

R. Schilpzand
Choices International Foundation, The Netherlands.

O. O. Akinkugbe
Nigerian Heart Foundation, Nigeria.

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