Rates and Sources of Soluble Phosphorus on the Behavior of Cowpea Plants Inoculated with Rhizobacteria from Soils of the North Region of Brazil | Chapter 15 | Theory and Applications of Microbiology and Biotechnology Vol. 2

Cowpea can obtain N through biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) through symbiosis with rhizobacteria. However, nodulation and BNF are influenced by edaphoclimatic factors that may bring about benefits or damages to the process, and the availability of nutrients is among the main factors that affect BNF and phosphorus (P). Thus, the present study aimed to determine the effectiveness of doses and sources of soluble P on nodulation, accumulation of nutrients, N and P absorption and use efficiency in cowpea plants inoculated with or without rhizobacteria. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse at the Federal Institute of Education, Science and Technology, Rondônia, Colorado do Oeste-RO Campus, Brazil. The experimental design was randomized blocks in a 5 x 2 x 2 factorial arrangement, corresponding to five P rates (0, 20, 40, 80 and 160 kg ha-1 of P2O5), two soluble sources of P2O5 [single superphosphate (SSP) and thermophosphate], absence and presence of inoculation, with four replication. The findings of this study show that inoculation with Bradyrhizobium sp. promotes increment in the dry matter production and increases N and P absorption efficiency in cowpea plants. The single superphosphate led to higher N and P absorption efficiency, production of shoot dry matter and production of nodules, when compared with thermophosphate. Inoculation with Bradyrhizobium sp. associated with SSP fertilization promotes higher P absorption efficiency in cowpea plants. Therefore, increase in P rates promoted increments in P concentrations in cowpea leaves.

Author(s) Details

Érica de Oliveira Araújo
Institute of Education, Science and Technology of Rondônia, BR 435 km 63, CEP 76993-000, Colorado do Oeste -RO, Brazil.

Juliana Guimarães Gerola
Institute of Education, Science and Technology of Rondônia, BR 435 km 63, CEP 76993-000, Colorado do Oeste -RO, Brazil.

Caiqui Raoni Gomes Ferreira
Institute of Education, Science and Technology of Rondônia, BR 435 km 63, CEP 76993-000, Colorado do Oeste -RO, Brazil.

Leandro Cecílio Matte
Institute of Education, Science and Technology of Rondônia, BR 435 km 63, CEP 76993-000, Colorado do Oeste -RO, Brazil.

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Escamoles, Ant Eggs (Liometopum apiculatum M.): An Underutilized Food | Chapter 09 | Recent Advances in Biological Research Vol. 5

Aims: To assess, Protein, Amino Acids, Lipids, fat-soluble vitamins A and E, Minerals, Fiber and Soluble Carbohydrates in Escamoles and inform the population about the benefits the intake of these edible insects may provide for human health.

Study Design: A combined protocol with both sampling and analytical procedures was used.

Place and Analysis: Escamoles were collected from different locations such as: El cardonal, Actopan, Santiago Anaya, Tulancalco, Huichapan, Apan, Tulancingo and Santuario, in spring (2014). Nutrient content analysis was performed according to AOAC methods and High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC).

Methodology: Sample: Conventional sampling was performed during the second week of March, 2014. Escamoles analysis: Macronutrient and energy content in escamoles was determined by individually analyzing macro and micro nutrients according to AOAC methods.

Results: The analysis showed that Escamoles contain: Proteins, 43.06 g/100 g; Minerals, 6.78 g/100 g; Fiber, 1.15 g/100 g; Soluble Carbohydrates, 18.74 g/100 g; Lipids, 34.96 g/100 g; Vitamin A, Retinol, 0.3024 mg /100 g and Vitamin E, α-tocopherol, 3.29 mg/100 g.

Conclusion: Escamoles are an additional source of nutrients that are underutilized due to the lack of knowledge regarding its nutritional composition, so it is important to increase the amount of information about escamoles and the health benefits that could be obtained from their consumption.

Author(s) Details

Dr. V. Melo-Ruiz
Departamento de Sistemas Biológicos, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana, Unidad Xochimilco, Mexico.

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Insects as Food from Deserted Areas in Mexico | Chapter 03 | Recent Advances in Biological Research Vol. 5

Introduction: A large amount of people in semi desert zones live in poverty due to shortage production of food, hence they do not have adequate foodstuff supply, situation that lead to a high index of malnutrition. Semi desert zone at Hidalgo State (north-east of Actopan, Hidalgo) is not suitable for crops, however, flora of Xerophit Thicket mainly Opuntia spp, Agave spp, mezquite trees (Prosopis velutina) and huizache shrubs (Acacia farnesiana L.), are appropriate for the reproduction under critical climate and soil conditions of several species of insects that, even though they are a good source of nutrients that would help to low down malnutrition, are not consumed on regular basis by locals.

Aims: The aim of this paper is to detect the edible insects from an arid zone of the State of Hidalgo, assess their macronutrient value and deliver that information to the local population.

Place and Duration of Study: Convenience sampling of wild insects were provided at an arid zone of the Hidalgo State, northeast of Actopan city located 2,100 masl with an arid and semiarid climate throughout 2015.

Methodology: Macronutrient content of insects from different order (three species of Lepidoptera, two species of Coleoptera, three species of Hymenoptera, one of Orthoptera and one of Hemiptera) were analyzed according to AOAC (1995) methods [1-3].

Results: Results ranged as follows: proteins from 9.85% to 74.85%; lipids from 5.85% to 55.85%, total ashes from 2.95% to 7.15%; fiber from 0.72% to 6.75% and soluble carbohydrates from 8.87% to 79.16%. Data showed that insects have good nutritional values. Their reproduction is seasonal but some species can be found all year long and hence represent good alternative to provide food security.

Conclusion: Wild insects collected in an arid zone of Hidalgo State showed adequate chemical composition values for human diet, with significant levels of proteins, low dietary fiber content, high values of fatty acids essential for nutrition and minerals. These small wild animals are a promising source of food to overcome malnutrition problems faced by poor population and provide food security.

Author(s) Details

Dr. V. Melo-Ruiz
Departamento de Sistemas Biológicos, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana, Unidad Xochimilco, Mexico.

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Nutritional Analysis of Octopus hubbsorum B (Cephalopoda: Octopodidae) from the Pacific Ocean, Acapulco, Guerrero, México | Chapter 02 | Recent Advances in Biological Research Vol. 5

Introduction: Mexico is a country with nutrition-related problems, mainly regarding protein-energy deficit and low consumption of minerals and vitamins. This has contributed to Mexico ranking second on adult obesity within countries of the OECD (30% of the population). On the Mexican littoral, many cephalopods exist but only few octopods are used for human consumption. According to Mexican authorities, only four species of octopods are fished, although there are 15 of these benthonic zone organisms that can be used for many purposes.

Aim: To establish the micro and macronutrient values of O. hubbsorum B and to evaluate its potential contribution to Mexican diet, since this organism is available all year in the Mexican Pacific Coast.

Study Design: Transversal study.

Place and Duration of Study: Samples of Octopus hubbsorum were bought from fishermen in Acapulco, in the Mexican Pacific Coast during Autumn 2016.

Methodology: Five O. hubbsorum were bought from local fishermen during the second week of Novermber, 2016. Moisture content was determined using the direct drying method. Protein content was determined according to the principle of the Kjeldahl method. Lipid content determination was carried out by the semicontinuous solvent extraction method. Determination of raw fiber was performed by an acid- alkaline digestion. Calcium and iron content was determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy, whilst phosphorous content analysis was performed by colorimetry.

Results: High amount of water and protein were found in O. hubbsorum B, being 64.15% and 69.38%, respectively. On the other hand, lipids were low and no fiber was found. Finally, the content of Ca, Fe and P in mg/100 g was 24.33, 1.4 and 120.67 respectively.

Conclusion: Octopus hubbsorum B is a rather good source of proteins. This could help diminishing proteic-caloric malnutrition of people living in coastal areas. However, octopus should be eaten with other nutritional sources to get a balanced diet.

Author(s) Details

J. Palacios-Abrantes
Changing Oceans Research Unit,The Institute for the Oceans and Fisheries, University of British Columbia, Canada.

Dr. V. Melo-Ruiz
Departamento de Sistemas Biológicos, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana, Unidad Xochimilco, Mexico.

J. J. Falcón-Gerónimo
Departamento de Sistemas Biológicos, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana, Unidad Xochimilco, Mexico.

Dr. C. Gazga-Urioste
Departamento de Sistemas Biológicos, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana, Unidad Xochimilco, Mexico.

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