Paul Ehlrich’s Mastzellon- The Legend Lives | Chapter 14 | Innovations in Medicine and Medical Research Vol. 2

Background: Mast cells (MC) secrete a variety of molecules that are implicated in either promoting tumour growth or may act in an opposite manner in other tumour types.  Aim: To evaluate the association of mast cells in the different grades of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma (OSCC).  Material and Methods: 45 diagnosed cases each of well, moderate and poorly differentiated OSCC were identified from the institutional archival material. Slides were made of 5 µm thickness and stained with Hematoxylin and eosin and 1% Toluidine blue stain. Each section was evaluated for mast cells in peritumoural, intratumoural locations and at the invasive front of the tumour. The results obtained were subjected to statistical evaluation by an SPSS version 19 using Chi square test, Anova and Post hoc Tuckey tests.  Results: An inverse relation was observed between MC count with grade of the tumour with maximum MC located in the peritumoural area followed by the invasive front and the least in the intra tumoural areas.  Conclusion: The results of the present study suggest that a decrease in MC count is associated with an advanced histologic grade of OSCC and hence a poorer prognosis, thus favouring the protective role of mast cells in OSCC.

Author(s) Details
Dr. Uzma Iqbal Belgaumi
Department of Oral Pathology and Microbiology, School of Dental Sciences, Krishna Institute of Medical Sciences, Deemed University, Karad, Maharashtra, India.

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Alterations in Oral Cancer Gene Expression in Response to Melatonin | Chapter 12 | New Insights into Disease and Pathogen Research Vol. 3

Aims: Melatonin (MLT) exerts oncostatic effects on numerous tumour types presumably by inhibiting cell proliferation and promoting apoptosis. The primary aim of this study was to investigate melatonin-induced changes in gene expression patterns in two different oral squamous carcinoma cell lines (OSCC).

Methodology: This was a prospective non-randomized experimental study design that was conducted at Department of Biomedical Sciences at the University of Nevada, Las Vegas – School of Dental Medicine between May 2016 and March 2017. The SCC25 and CAL27 cell lines were cultured with and without MLT (10 ug/mL) for 72 hours, and total cellular RNA was isolated and converted to cDNA. The expression of 92 genes associated with the molecular mechanisms of cancer and four endogenous control genes were examined by qRT-PCR. The fold change with respect to control levels were calculated using the comparative method or delta-delta ddCt algorithm.

Results: Gene expression was compared between the untreated and treated cells, SCC25 and CAL27. Although 40% of the genes (n=37/92) in SCC25 cells demonstrated different expression levels, only six were outside the relative-fold change values observed with all other genes (PTEN, MAPK3K5, BCL2, TAGA2B, MAX, and NFKB-IA). In CAL27 cell over 70% (n=65/92) genes exhibited different expression levels, with only two outside the relative fold-change values observed with all other genes (MAPK3K5, FZD1).

Conclusion: MLT administration to oral cancer cells may induce substantial changes in the expression levels of genes associated with the molecular mechanisms of cancer. However, relatively few of these changes were outside the range of observed values. Therefore, continued analysis and verification of these results in other oral cancers may reveal common MLT-induced changed and provide insights into the potential mechanisms of MLT-induced oncostatic effects in oral cancers.

Author(s) Details

Arin Hartounian
Department of Clinical Sciences, School of Dental Medicine, University of Nevada, Las Vegas, 1700 W. Charleston Blvd., Las Vegas, Nevada, 89106, USA.

Guillermo Alessandro Retis
Department of Clinical Sciences, School of Dental Medicine, University of Nevada, Las Vegas, 1700 W. Charleston Blvd., Las Vegas, Nevada, 89106, USA.

Karl Kingsley
Department of Biomedical Sciences, School of Dental Medicine, University of Nevada, Las Vegas, 1001 Shadow Lane, Las Vegas, Nevada, 89106, USA.

Dr. Katherine Howard, PhD
Department of Biomedical Sciences, School of Dental Medicine, University of Nevada, Las Vegas, 1001 Shadow Lane, Las Vegas, Nevada, 89106, USA.

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