Spilanthes paniculata Flower Extracts Attenuates Paracetamol Induced Liver Damage by Antioxidant Mechanism | Chapter 3 | Trends in Pharmaceutical Research and Development Vol. 1

The present study was undertaken to investigate the antioxidant and hepatoprotective effect of Spilanthes paniculata Wall. ex DC flower extracts against paracetamol-induced liver damage. The study was conducted in 36 male Wistar rats of either sex, and six groups were established. While the first group was maintained as normal control (NC, distilled water), Groups 2 to 6 were administered 3 g/kg Paracetamol (PAR) for 2 day, 100 mg/kg Silymarin (SMR), 500 mg/kg Methanolic extract (MESP), Petroleum ether extract (PEESP), Ethyl acetate extract of S. paniculata (EAESP) suspended in 0.5% tween 80 plus PAR, respectively. PAR was administered in the same schedule as in group 2, the treatment with silymarin and extracts was given for 10 days orally, respectively. It was observed that PAR significantly increased serum Alanine transaminase (ALT), Aspartate transaminase (AST), Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity liver MDA levels (P<0.01) and significantly decreased liver Glutathione (GSH), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity (P<0.01), when compared with the normal control group (NC). On the other hand, statistically significant (P<0.01) changes were observed in the biochemical parameters of the group which was administered SMR, PEESP and EAESP. Compared with the pathological changes observed in the liver in the form of congested sinusoids and centrilobular necrosis, in the group which was administered paracetamol alone (PAR), lesions were determined to be less severe particularly in the group (PEESP and EAESP). The               study shows that administration of PEESP and EAESP offered a therapeutic potential for the treatment of hepatotoxicity induced by paracetamol via regulation of endogenous antioxidant system in liver.  

Author(s) Details

Syed Ayaz Ali
Department of Pharmacology, Y. B. Chavan College of Pharmacy, Dr. Rafiq Zakaria Campus, Rauza Bagh, Aurangabad, Maharashtra, India.

Shukla Mahanand
Department of Pharmacology, Y. B. Chavan College of Pharmacy, Dr. Rafiq Zakaria Campus, Rauza Bagh, Aurangabad, Maharashtra, India.

Subur W. Khan
Department of Pharmacognosy, Y. B. Chavan College of Pharmacy, Dr. Rafiq Zakaria Campus, Rauza Bagh, Aurangabad, Maharashtra, India

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Unifying Mechanism for Plant Nutrients as Anticancer Agents: Electron Transfer, Reactive Oxygen Species and Oxidative Stress |Chapter 1 | Theory and Applications of Chemistry Vol. 4

Plants remain an important source of new drugs, new drug leads for making more effective drugs in the pharmaceutical industry. Plant based discovery resulted mainly in the development of anticancer and anti-infective agents providing new leads to the drug industry.

The present article focuses on a unifying mode of action for the nutrients, namely, resveratrol, epigallocatechin, polyene-ß-carotene, polyene lycopene, piperine, curcumin, genistein, luteolin, sulforaphane and pomegranate extract. The mechanism is based on electron transfer, reactive oxygen species and oxidative stress, which comprises an extension of earlier reports involving agents. Most of the compounds are precursors of electron transfer quinones, whereas others fit into the polyene category. The nutrients are better known as antioxidants. The dichotomy is addressed.   

Author(s) Details

Peter Kovacic

Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, San Diego State University, San Diego, CA 92182-1030, USA

Ratnasamy Somanathan

Centro de Graduados e Investigación del Instituto Tecnológico de Tijuana, Mesa de Otay, Tijuana, B.C. Mexico.

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Protective Role of Some Feed Additives against Dizocelpine Induced Oxidative Stress in Testes of Rabbit Bucks | Chapter 05 | Research and Development in Agricultural Sciences Vol. 2

Aims: As optimization of farm animals reproductive performance is a main objective, the present study was, undertaken to investigate the possible protective effect of vitamin C, vitamin E and olive pomace against dizocilpine (MK-801) induced oxidative stress and its resultant alterations on antioxidant status, spermiogram, hormonal, enzyme markers and histomorphology of testes of rabbit bucks during first and second month of the experiment.

Study Design: Laboratory experimental design was performed.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted in the experimental rabbitry of Physiology Department, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Cairo University during the period from January to May 2014 in accordance with the Chinese guidelines for animal welfare and approved by the animal welfare committee of Animal Science College, Zhejiang University.

Methodology: Thirty- six male New Zealand White rabbits of about 5-months age and average body weight of 2500 g were randomly selected, used for the experimental work one month later. During this month, the rabbits were gradually adapted to natural mating. The experiment lasted for 2 months (length of spermatogenic cycle in rabbit), bucks were housed individually in commercial cages (55×60×34 cm), equipped with automatic drinkers and j-feeders. Clean and fresh water was available all time. The whole rabbitry was well ventilated through both natural windows and electric fans and illuminated to 14:10 light dark cycle through natural and fluorescent lighting. The rabbitry average ambient temperature and relative humidity ranged from 20 to 30ºC and 70 -80%, respectively during summer resting period. Basal and experimental diets were formulated to cover the nutrient requirements of rabbits as recommended in [1]. Diets were subjected to chemical analysis according to [2]. Offered for all animals ad libitum Table 1. The bucks were equally and randomly divided into six groups (6 in each) namely control which injected with 1.0 ml sterile saline intraperitoneal (i.p.), second group injected by dizocilpine (MK-801 purchased from Sigma-Aldrich, Egypt), at dose 0.1 mg/kg. The dose of MK-801 was dissolved in 1.0 ml sterile saline and was injected daily intraperitoneal (i.p.) for 5 consecutive days, third group was injected by dizocilpine and supplemented with “vitamin C” (1 g/L of drinking water), while the forth group was injected by dizocilpine and supplemented with “vitamin E” in drinking water (50 ml/100 L)( the international units of vitamin E contained in 50 ml be mentioned) and those of the fifth group was supplemented with “vitamin C” plus “vitamin E”. All five groups were fed the basal diets, while the sixth group was injected by dizocilpine and supplemented with the experimental diet that contained olive pomace (10%).

1) Samples collection: Semen was collected using artificial vagina [3]. Semen collection was done by using a teaser female and artificial vagina (containing water at 50ºC) that was locally fabricated as described by Herbert and Adejumo [4]. The ejaculate volumes were recorded (using a graduated collection tube) after removal of the gel mass; Semen pH was determined using pH paper 1-14; Mass motility (MM) was determined by placing a drop of semen on a clean, dry, warm slide and examining microscopically using thermostatically controlled hot stage adjusted at 38-40ºC. Mass activity of spermatozoa was scored (0-5) according to the intensity of the moving whirls [5] as follows: 0 = no current, 1 = few slow current, 2 = many moderate waves, 3 = many sweeping waves, 4 = numerous vigorous waves, 5 = numerous rapid and vigorous waves. Individual motility was assessed in semen sample diluted with 2.9% sodium citrate dehydrate solution, spread almost evenly under a glass cover slide and examined microscopically using adjusted hot stage at 38-40ºC. Individual sperm motility percent was determined on a subjective scale of 0-100% to the nearest 5% after viewing several microscopic fields. Sperm-cell concentration per ml was measured by counting the number of spermatozoa present on both sides of an improved Neubauer hemocytometer slide (GmbH & Co., Brands twiete 4, 2000 Hamburg 11, Germany).

Total sperm output was calculated by multiplying semen ejaculate volume and semen concentration. Assessment of live, dead, and abnormal spermatozoa was performed using an eosin–nigrosin blue staining mixture [6].

2) Samples analysis: Two bucks from each group one and two months later from beginning of experiment were slaughtered for obtaining the testes. The testes of each buck were dissected and weighed; one testis was kept in liquid nitrogen for testicular enzyme markers, antioxidant parameters and hormonal assay, while the other testis was fixed in 10% formol saline for histomorphology.

The antioxidant parameters and activities of selected testicular enzyme markers (alkaline phosphatase and lactate dehydrogenase) besides Sertoli cell index (gamma glutamyl transferase) were estimated in testes using testicular homogenate which was prepared according to the method adopted by Hodgen and Sherins [7]; Wherein testicular tissue was homogenized in 0.015 M disodium hydrogen phosphate (Na2HPO4), 0.15 M sodium chloride (Nacl), pH 7.8 at 4ºC. All assays were performed within 48 hours after homogenization.

Superoxide dismutase activity [8] glutathione peroxidase activity [9] glutathione-S-transferase [10], total antioxidant capacity [11] and lipid peroxidation expressed in Malondialdehyde [12] were performed using kits purchased from Biodiagnostic Company, Dokki, Egypt.

3) Hormonal assay: Radioimmunoassay was used for quantitative determination of testosterone and17beta-estradiol hormones in testes homogenate.

Determination of testicular testosterone was performed according to the method of [13] using kits purchased from “TESTO-RIA-CT” Belgium.Determination of testicular 17beta- estradiol was performed according to the method of [14] using kits purchased from “IMMUNOTECH”.

2.3.3 The Testicular Enzymes. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) [15] gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT) [16] and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) [17] using kit purchased from Spectrum Diagnostics.

4) Histomorphological studies: For qualitative analysis of testicular histology, the testes samples were fixed for 2 days at 10% formal-saline and dehydrated by passing successfully in different mixtures of ethyl alcohol-water, cleaned with xylene and embedded in paraffin. Sections of tissue (5-6 μm thickness) were prepared by using microtome and stained with haematoxylin and eosin and in neutral deparafinated xylene (DPX) medium for microscopic observations.

5) Statistical analysis: Data are presented as means ±S.E. and analyzed by one-way ANOVA using Costate computer program Costat version 6.400 (copyright© 1998-2008 CoHort software) according to the method of [18]. Groups were compared using the calculated least significant difference test (LSD) at the at P value ≤ 0.05.

Results: The first month revealed (1) significant decrease in spermiogram, antioxidative parameters, testicular estradiol, testosterone, enzyme markers and clear pathological changes in testes of dizocilpine group; (2) Significant improvement in the measured parameters of groups subjected to dizocilpine and supplemented with “vitamin E”, “vitamin C” and olive pomace; (3) significant increase of all measured parameters in the “vitamin C” plus “vitamin E” supplemented group. On the other hand, results at second month showed no difference between all groups in these parameters.

Conclusion: It was obvious that the supplementation with vitamin C or/and vitamin E and olive pomace to male rabbits exposed to oxidative stress was associated with improved spermiogram, anti-oxidative parameters, hormonal and testicular enzymatic activities.

Author(s) Details

Sohair Y. Saleh
Department of Physiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt.

Francois A. R. Sawiress
Department of Physiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt.

Mohamed A. Tony
Department of Nutrition and Clinical Nutrition, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt.

Amin M. Hassanin
Department of Cytology and Histology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Sadat City, Meonofya, Egypt.

M. A. Khattab
Department of Cytology and Histology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt.

M. R. Bakeer
Department of Physiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt.

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Reduction of Metal Ion Species Associated With Pathological Conditions by Utilizing Potassium Ferrate (K2FeO4) Treatment | Chapter 03 | Current Perspectives to Environment and Climate Change Vol. 1

Aims: To demonstrate that potassium ferrate will remove potentially toxic metal ions from contaminated water samples.

Study Design: A known amount of metal ions were solubilized in aqueous solution, then exposed to potassium ferrate in known amounts. Extent of removal was monitored by ion chromatography and visible spectroscopy.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Chemistry, Durham Science Center, 6001 Dodge Street, Omaha Nebraska 68182 USA.

Methodology: Known amounts of iron (II), manganese (II), copper (II), and calcium were solubilized in aqueous solution to known molarity. These mixtures were treated by utilizing potassium ferrate in known amounts. The presence of metal ions was monitored by ion chromatography and/or visible spectroscopy before and after treatment with potassium ferrate. Potassium ferrate was present with metallic ions for 24 hours at 21ºC.

Results: Metal ions were placed in aqueous solution, iron (II) as Fe(NH4)2(SO4)2, copper (II) as CuCl2•2H2O, manganese (II) as MnCl2•4H2O, and magnesium (II) as magnesium chloride, calcium as calcium chloride. Potassium ferrate treatment did not remove chloride (Cl-), ammonium (NH4+), and sulfate (SO42-). The cation calcium was decreased by 84.0%, magnesium was decreased by 42.5%, copper (II) was removed by 100%, iron (II) by 48.7%.

Reduction of calcium, magnesium, copper, and iron (II) was monitored by ion chromatography. Reduction of iron (II), manganese, and copper (II) was monitored by visible spectroscopy. Substantial reduction of metallic ions was found in all tests after a 24 hour period at 21ºC.

Conclusion: These metals have been associated with oxidative stress, damage to mental and central nervous system function. Potassium ferrate is shown to be efficient in removing many of these potentially harmful ions. Visible spectroscopy and ion chromatography is shown to be effective in monitoring the reduction of metallic ions during investigations or potassium ferrate treatment of contaminated water.

Author(s) Details

Dr. Ronald Bartzatt
University of Nebraska, Durham Science Center, 6001 Dodge Street, Omaha, Nebraska 68182, USA.

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