Palliative Care: The Social Pain | Chapter 09 | Current Research in Education and Social Studies Vol. 3

This article intends to carry out an analysis on Palliative Care and its relationship with human rights, considering the multidimensional conceptions inherent to pain as advocated by Cicely Saunders. The author delves into the concept of total pain by understanding it as a set of symptoms that can contribute to a pain picture that encompasses the physical, psychological, social and spiritual dimensions that affect a patient’s life. In this way, the field in question is presented from the concept of total pain, revealing its dimensions of social pain. Thus, it is based on bibliographical research, using the method of narrative revision. Emphasis is placed on the study of Michel Foucault, in his last phase, in the reflexive process on pain and finitude as practices of freedom. The purpose of palliative care is to give meaning to pain in order to re-signify life in a limiting condition imposed by the non-prospect of healing. It also provides a vital redirection of care for the maximization of the quality of life. It is concluded that social pain is exacerbated by a tense and contradictory daily life, which often imposes a harsh reality that threatens the right of universal access to health (without discrimination and social security) and makes it become distant, almost utopian. This is certainly a dilemma of the all Brazilian health professionals.

Author(s) Details

Andrea Frossard
Brazilian National Cancer Institute, Palliative Care, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

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Phospholipase A2 Inhibition and Antiinflammatory Activity of F4 Fraction of Total Ethereal Leaf Extract of Annona senegalensis Pers. (Annonaceae) | Chapter 02 | New Insights on Chemical Research Vol. 1

Annona senegalensis Pers. (Annonaceae) is a plant which is used in african traditional medicine for the treatment of various diseases. This study aimed to investigate the analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of total ethereal leaf extract fractions of A. senegalensis. Compounds of methanolic fractions of ethereal leaf extract of A. senegalensis were separated by gel sephadex chromatography, in five fractions (F1, F2, F3, F4, F5). Experiments were performed in acetic acid-induced contortions in mice, carrageenan rat paw edema and phospholipase A2 inhibitory test. The methanolic fraction of total ethereal leaf extract (10 mg/kg, per os) significantly prevented the carrageenan inflammatory edema. The variation of edema is 22.31±3.35%, 49.66±13.50%, 52.10±10.02% respectively at T1h, T3h and T5h. The increased edema after oral administration of F4 fraction administered at 300 µg/kg and 1 mg/kg per os is respectively 52.77±7.36% and 33.81±6.94%. The variation of edema in betamethasone group (1 mg/kg, per os) is 23.46±3.99%. F4 fraction at 300 µg/kg, significantly inhibited 16.39% of phospholipase A2 enzyme activity. F4 fraction (300 µg/kg, per os) also significantly prevented acetic acid-induced pain in mice. The number of abdominal contortions is 21 versus 72 in control group. F4 fraction compounds have a powerful analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity that involves phospholipase A2 inhibition, comparable to betamethasone profile on pain and inflammation.

Author(s) Details

M. Sene
Laboratoire de Pharmacologie et Pharmacodynamie, FMPO, UCAD, BP 5005 Dakar-Fann, Senegal.

F. S. Barboza
Laboratoire de Pharmacologie et Pharmacodynamie, FMPO, UCAD, BP 5005 Dakar-Fann, Senegal.

A. Ndong
Laboratoire de Pharmacologie et Pharmacodynamie, FMPO, UCAD, BP 5005 Dakar-Fann, Senegal.

A. Sarr
Laboratoire de Pharmacognosie et Botanique, FMPO, UCAD, BP 5005 Dakar-Fann, Senegal.

A. Wele3
Laboratoire de Chimie Organique et Thérapeutique, FMPO, UCAD, BP 5005 Dakar-Fann, Senegal.

E. Bassene
Laboratoire de Pharmacognosie et Botanique, FMPO, UCAD, BP 5005 Dakar-Fann, Senegal.

G. Y. Sy
Laboratoire de Pharmacologie et Pharmacodynamie, FMPO, UCAD, BP 5005 Dakar-Fann, Senegal.

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