Attitude and Perception to Tattoos and Scarified Skin Marks in Makurdi, North Central Nigeria | Chapter 13 | Innovations in Medicine and Medical Research Vol. 1

Aim: Tattoo art which has been practiced all over the world for centuries is undergoing a revolution. Some people like it, others don’t. The aim of the study was to estimate the prevalence of tattooing among students and residents of Makurdi, like or dislike, who gave consent before tattooing, symbolism/motive of tattooing and whom to go to for removal of tattoos.

Study Design: A survey research using structured questionnaire as instrument for data collection among students of Benue State University and residents of Makurdi over a period of one month in January, 2017.

Methodology: Views of one hundred and seventy two residents and  students  in Makurdi, North Central Nigeria, were collated via a pre-tested structured questionnaire and analyzed on the basis of sex, age, like/dislike of tattoos, symbolism, consent given, whether one would tattoo himself if given a chance and what to do when one got tired of tattoos.

Results: Two hundred and ten questionnaires were administered and one hundred and seventy two were returned giving attrition rate of 18.1%. All returned questionnaires were completely filled. One hundred and seventy two respondents participated in the study comprising 123 males and 49 females giving a male to female ratio of 2.5:1. Twenty one respondents had tattoos giving a tattoo prevalence of 12.2%. One hundred and thirty eight (80.2%) did not like tattoos and forty two (24.4%) indicated that there was no significance to symbolism of tattoos and indeed thirty (17.4%) felt tattoos are a body mutilation. One hundred and fifty one (87.8%) indicated they will not have tattoos when given a chance to do so. Ninety seven (56.4%) believed the best person to go to for tattoo removal is a Plastic Surgeon.

Conclusion: The study showed that majority of students and residents of Makurdi metropolis in Nigeria do not like tattoos and would not like to have one when given a chance to do so. A large scale study involving other parts of Nigeria needs to be done to assess a true like/dislike of tattoos in this environment.

Author(s) Details

Dr. P. Denen Akaa
Department of Surgery, College of Health Sciences, Benue State University, Makurdi, Nigeria.

Dr. C. N. Ahachi
Benue State University Teaching Hospital, Makurdi, Nigeria.

Dr. Ojo Babarinde
Benue State University Teaching Hospital, Makurdi, Nigeria.

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Perceptions of the Traditional Medical Practitioners of North-Western Nigeria on Malaria Treatment and the Potential Antiplasmodial Properties of Plumeria rubra Stem-Bark | Chapter 02 | Modern Advances in Pharmaceutical Research Vol. 2

Aims: The apparent lack of scientific proof of efficacies claimed by the traditional medical practitioners (TMPs) (locally known as Magori/’Yan-ganye, in Hausa language) of North-Western Nigeria with respect to malaria and the many drawbacks of the current antimalarial drugs stimulated this study. The study was carried out to evaluate the perception of the TMPs on the causes, diagnosis and treatment of malaria and evaluate the potential antiplasmodial properties (in-vivo in Albino mice) of Plumeria rubra Linn. (Apocynaceae) commonly used in traditional treatment of malaria in North-Western Nigeria. The study was aimed at providing scientific basis for use of traditional health knowledge and use of medicinal plant resources in the treatment of malaria.

Study Design: Using an ethno-medical survey, information was obtained from the TMPs relating to identification of plants, their medicinal uses and the mode of preparations of remedies on traditional treatment of malaria.

Place and Duration of Study: The ethno-medicinal survey was carried out at the premises of TMPs from December, 2005 to May, 2008. The laboratory work was carried out at the Department of Pharmacognosy and Drug Development, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria from July, 2008 to February, 2010.

Methodology: An ethno-medical survey was conducted in twenty Local Government Areas across four States (Kaduna, Kano, Katsina and Jigawa) in North-Western Nigeria. The communities covered in the survey were selected on the basis of their reputation for being homes to a number of TMPs. The plant used was selected on the basis of ethno-medical information obtained from the TMPs using an exclusion criterion based on claim for activity score. The preferable solvent used by the local people was found to be mostly water and/or alcohol, the plant material was therefore extracted by maceration technique using 70% v/v aqueous-ethanol. The metabolites profiles of the extracts were determined using thin layer chromatographic (TLC) technique on commercially prepared silica gel pre-coated flexible plates.

Results: The TMPs were able to define, diagnose and presumably treat malaria using the indigenous medicines. Median lethal dose (LD50) was established to be greater than 5 gkg-1 for the aqueous extract and 3.8 gkg-1 for the chloroform extract orally in mice respectively. Antiplasmodial evaluation of the two extracts revealed that the two extracts exhibited dose-dependent in-vivo suppressive, curative and prophylactive properties on the development of parasitaemia in Albino mice using a chloroquine sensitive strain of Plasmodium berghei (NK-65). TLC profile fingerprints of the aqueous extract revealed three distinct spots with Rf values of 0.23, 0.39 and 0.75 whereas that the chloroform extract revealed three distinct spots with Rf values of 0.33, 0.42 and 0.55 when it was developed in ethyl acetate: ethanol: water: ammonia (65:25:9:1).

Conclusion: These results represented the first conducted evaluation of the perception of TMPs of North-Western Nigeria on the causes, diagnosis and treatment of malaria, antiplasmodial and thin layer chromatographic profile fingerprinting studies on Plumeria rubra bark found in North-Western Nigeria. The findings are therefore expected to provide the necessary scientific basis for rational use of traditional health knowledge and use of medicinal plant resources of North-Western Nigeria in the treatment of malaria.

Author(s) Details

Umar Adam Katsayal
Department of Pharmacognosy and Drug Development, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria.

Mujitaba Suleiman Abubakar
Department of Pharmacognosy and Drug Development, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria.

Abubakar Ahmed
Department of Pharmacognosy and Drug Development, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria.

Ezzeddeen Mukhtar Abdurahman
Department of Pharmacognosy and Drug Development, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria.

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View Volume: https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/mapr/v2

Patients’ Perceptions and Attitudes towards Patient information Leaflet (PIL) | Chapter 9 | Modern Advances in Pharmaceutical Research Vol. 1

Background: Patient-tested and -friendly  information leaflets provide  sufficient, accurate, and pertinent information about prescribed and over-the-counter medications to health consumers for their safety,  enhanced  satisfaction, improved  outcomes and no medication errors across the globe. However healthcare consumers’ knowledge, attitude, behaviour and perception concerning different items of drug leaflets differ across the board.

Objective: This study aimed to explore knowledge, attitude, behaviour and perception of patients towards drug/patient information leaflets in Riyadh, capital city of Saudi Arabia.

Methods: This cross-sectional study used a self-designed reliable questionnaire for collecting relevant data about drug leaflets from purposefully selected participants (n=319) attending ambulatory clinics of a main hospital of King Fahad Medical City, Riyadh.

Results: The majority of patients were females (75%), 61% patients were between the ages of 20 to 30 years, and 58% of the participants were educated to university level. About 61% to 97% of participants agreed to knowledge, attitude and behaviour items, and only 26% patients perceived that the drug information provided by healthcare professionals suffices on its own without the drug leaflets. About 62% of the participants observed that the information in the drug leaflet is more useful than the information given verbally by healthcare professionals. The majority of patients (66% to 99%) expressed variably positive behaviour and favourable attitudes toward drug leaflet information. The participants ranked ‘indications’ (31.4%) and ‘how to use’ (26.7%) drugs as the two most important sections in drug leaflet.

Conclusion: Drug leaflets are important sources of drug information both for patients and general public globally and improve their knowledge as well as positive effects on their attitude, perception and behaviour.  Healthcare  professionals  need  to  encourage  health  consumers  to  read  the  drug leaflets which need to be patient-friendly and be written clearly in understandable lay terminology and native language. Future studies should explore and compare the knowledge base of those patients who read patient information leaflet (PIL) with those who do not read it across Arabian Gulf countries.

Author(s) Details

Saud M. Alsanad
College of Medicine, Imam Muhammad Ibn Saud Islamic University (IMSIU),Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

Naseem A. Qureshi
National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine, Ministry of Health, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

Read full article: http://bp.bookpi.org/index.php/bpi/catalog/view/47/237/402-1

View Volume: https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/mapr/v1