Performance in chemistry of form two national examinations in Zanzibar government schools have not been encouraging since 2009 to date despite several attempts made through additional carefully planned instructional strategies and models to improve the status of teaching and learning chemistry. From the performance data of 31 government schools sampled gotten from the Ministry of Education and Vocational Training Zanzibar shows the average mean score is 30.16 with a mean standard deviation of 2.1995 while those who passed are 30 ± 10%. With percentage pass mark set at 35%, performance has been poor and persistent. Conclusively, enhancement of teachers’ effectiveness, improved economies of education and setting aside fewer schools for science studies is mandatory. The study recommends heuristic approach of teaching intertwined with instructional objectives to bring learners into meaningful learning and effective understanding guided by the four domains of Bloom’s taxonomy with more motivational orientations and innovations.
Ochieng O. Anthony Chemistry Unit, Department of Science, Sumait University, P.O. Box 1933, Zanzibar, Tanzania
Hemed M. Shabaan Department of Science, Sumait University, P.O. Box 1933, Zanzibar, Tanzania
Sebtuu M. Nassor Faculty of Education, Sumait University, P.O. Box 1933, Zanzibar, Tanzania.
Firms operating in highly competitive industries strive to bolster their performance by building sustainable competitive advantage. Organizational culture and market orientation are considered sources of competitive advantage. Organizational culture creates competitive advantage only when it is strong, encourages creativity and adaptation to changing conditions in the market. Organizational culture creates behaviors such as market orientation that ultimately leads to superior performance of the firm. Competition in the microfinance industry is intense as microfinance institutions compete with each other, commercial banks, savings and cooperative societies and informal money lenders. In such competitive markets, understanding the drivers of firm performance is necessary. Therefore, our study was designed to assess the influence of organizational culture and market orientation on performance of microfinance institutions in Kenya. The population of the study comprised microfinance institutions that were members of the Association of Microfinance Institutions (AMFI) in Kenya. We used descriptive cross-sectional survey design. We collected primary data using structured questionnaire. Our hypotheses were tested through linear regression analysis. Our results demonstrate that organizational culture significantly and positively influence performance of microfinance institutions. The partial mediation effect of market orientation on the relationship between organizational culture and performance was confirmed. The complimentary effect of organizational culture on market orientation implies that organizations need to spend more resources in nurturing market orientation to create sustainable competitive advantage through delivery of superior customer experience. We conclude that the influence of organizational culture and market orientation on performance is more plausible for mature industries regarded as diverse in terms of customer needs.
Owino O. Joseph [Ph.D] Department of Business Administration, University of Nairobi, Kenya.
Prof. Kibera Francis [Ph.D, OGW, CBS] Department of Business Administration, University of Nairobi, Kenya.
Aims: The complexity posed by increased demand for air travel has occasioned a transition between manual reservation systems to online reservation systems. The development of these computerized reservation systems came as management solution to the increasing number of commercial airline companies which put more pressure on their management to continually seek profits, reduce cost, and increase revenues in a competitive environment that only provides marginal profit. Although empirical evidence indicates the ease of airline transaction such as ticket booking or travel planning for airline customers. However, clarity on the relationship between the level of usage of reservation systems and the associated revenue benefits to airlines are yet explored. Therefore, this chapter explores the relationship between the use of Airline Reservation System and the performance of an airline. It attempts to assess the impact of ICT enhanced reservation procedures on the performance of airline industries with a hope that the information provided will guide airline operators and policy makers in their bid to sustain productivity and maintain efficiency.
Design: The study adopts a positivist view to
exploring phenomenon’s to assess the impact of Airline Reservation System on the
performance of airline companies. It assumes possibility of an existing
relationship between both variables, hence the proposition of hypothesis for
confirmation or rejection of the claim.
and Duration of Study: Research was conducted in Imo State, a
south-eastern city in Nigeria. The study target population represents the
airlines which utilize the online reservation system have their offices located
in Sam-Mbakwe International Cargo Airport Owerri, Imo state. Consequently, the
airport in Imo State was selected as a suitable study location.
Using survey data collected from airline staff, airline passengers and
reservation agents of six airlines at the Sam-Mbakwe International Cargo
Airport Owerri, Imo state, this study adopts a Pearson correlation analysis to
ascertain the relationship between the number of users of airline reservation system and the
performance viz a viz its returns on assets.
The study result showed an R2 value of 0.8583 for hypothesis 1, which strongly
expresses the trend component of the relationship and therefore supports the
alternative hypothesis which states that there is a significant relationship
between the use of airline reservation system and the performance viz a viz its
returns on assets. Furthermore, the result from the SPSS coefficients analysis
shows that for a one unit rise in the number of users of the airline
reservation system there is a corresponding .961 rise in the returns on the
assets which further indicates a greater performance level, hence accepting
Ha2: which states that “the correlation between the performance of an airline
(return on Asset) and the use of an Airline Reservation System is not zero” and
rejecting Ho 2.
Conclusion: Based on the findings, the study encourages a wider adoption of ICT tools such as the online reservation systems by airlines because its adoption suggests a propensity for improved revenue generation as well as customer satisfaction. However, our suggestion for further studies focuses on the exploration of the challenges of adopting such ICT systems with respect to developing country contexts.
Dr. Geraldine Nkechinyere Okeudo Department of Transport Management Technology, Federal University of Technology, Owerri, P.M.B.1526 Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria.