Impact of Auto Exhaust Pollution on Trees | Chapter 03 | Advances and Trends in Agricultural Sciences Vol. 2

Environmental pollution and its impact on living organisms is worldwide problem. The pollutants discharged from the automobile activities are particulate matter, heavy metals (Pb and Cd), carbon dioxide, oxides of nitrogen and oxides producing toxic effects on plant growth. The other common effects are reduced yield of flowers, branch length, leaf area and reduction in seed germination percentage. This book chapter provide some information about the impact of auto exhaust pollution on plant growth. The importance of tree in the urban environment cannot be ignore. A number of studies on the effects of air pollution on tree growth have been carried out by researchers over the past many years in developed and in developing countries. Trees play an important role in maintaining the ecological balance, pollution reduction and lessening the burden of pollutant by absorbing pollutants. However, trees in urban cities are growing in a severe stressful environment due to incomplete burning of fossil fuel and badly maintained vehicles resulting shorten life span of plant. The growth of plants could be affected by several reasons and one of them is the presence of toxic pollutants derived from the auto vehicular exhaust emission.

Author(s) Details

Prof. Dr. Muhammad Zafar Iqbal
Adjunct Professor, Department of Botany, University of Karachi, Karachi- 75270, Pakistan.

Dr. Muhammad Shafiq, P.G.D. (P.A.), M.A.S. (H.R.), M.Sc. Ph.D.
Department of Botany, University of Karachi, Karachi -75250, Pakistan.

Prof. Dr. Mohammad Athar Tariq, DSc.
California Department of Food and Agriculture, 1220 N Street, Room 325, Sacramento, CA 95814, USA.

Dr. Muhammad Kabir
Department of Biological Sciences, University of Sargodha, Sub-Campus Bhakkar, Bhakkar-30000, Punjab, Pakistan.

Dr. Zia-Ur-Rehman Farooqi
Department of Botany, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan.

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Preliminary Evaluation of Growth and Phenological Features of Exotic Apple Varieties under High Density Plantation System | Chapter 03 | Advances in Applied Science and Technology Vol. 5

The  apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) is believed to  have  originated  in  the  Caucasus  mountains  of south-western Asia.  The cultivated apples belong to the species Malus pumila or Malus sylvestris. Apple is undoubtedly the most important temperate fruit. It is the most important temperate fruit in the world and India stands 5th in the production of apple. In India, apple cultivation is extremely profitable and has become  the  major  industry  of  Jammu and  Kashmir and Himachal  Pradesh. The present commercial cultivars of apple are far improved from the wild apples from which they developed over many centuries. And to commercialize improved varieties of apple in India, the varieties need to be evaluated for their growth characteristics. Keeping this view, the study was taken to evaluate four new exotic  varieties  of  apple  viz., Super Chief  Sandidge, Gala  Red  Lum, Fuji Zhen Aztec  and Golden Clone B grafted on rootstock M9T337 for their various growth and phenological characteristics. The study  showed  statistically  significant  differences  among varieties  in  their various  characters.  Tree morphological characteristics revealed variety Super Chief Sandidge to be the most dwarf variety with least tree height (1.31m) and incremental growth in tree height (23.64cm) while the variety Fuji Zhen Aztec reported to be most vigorous with an average tree height of (1.96m), and highest increase in tree height in a  season  (31.04 cm).  Various phenological stages were observed earliest in variety Gala Red Lum and last in Golden Clone B. All the varieties appeared to be promising under Kashmir condition and can be recommended for further research, mass multiplication and ultimate adoption by orchardists of valley. On the basis of their vegetative behavior, Super Chief Sandidge appeared to be highly dwarf variety in terms of tree morphology and other as moderate. It was concluded that the different  exotic  cultivars  studied  had  different  flowering  phenological  features  which  will  permit  to establish  proper  varietal  combinations  for  pollination  to  improve  profitability  of  high  density  apple orchards. Further, it can be suggested that in variety Super Chief Sandidge further close plantings at the rate of 3906 trees/ha can be recommended to utilize the inter tree space more efficiently and the productivity further high.

Author(s) Details

Ms. Rafiya Mushtaq

Division of Fruit Science, Faculty of Horticulture, Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Science & Technology of Kashmir, Shalimar, Srinagar 190025, J&K, India.

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