Evaluation of In vitro Antioxidant and Diuretic Potential of Ethanol Extract of Gongronema latifolium Leaves on Wistar Albino Rats | Chapter 5 | Innovations in Medicine and Medical Research Vol.2

Medicinal herbs are the significant source Diuretics, phytochemicals and antioxidants. Gongronema latifolium had been widely used for its reported biological activities in indigenous system of medicine. The diuretics, phytochemicals and antioxidant properties were evaluated considering their possible contribution to improve the use of herbal products in treatment of diseases. The phytochemical properties such as Tannins, Alkaloids, saponin, steroids, flavonoids, glycosides and terpenoid were observed to be present after the qualitative analysis on the plant extract. The antioxidant activity was determined using nitric oxide, lipid peroxidation and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical scavenging activities. The plant extract showed 93.18% inhibition in nitric oxide at highest (200 µg/ml) used. This is higher when compared to DPPH and lipid peroxidation extract which are 90.652 and 90.99 mg respectively. The percentage inhibition of the plant extract showed low inhibition concentration as against 50% (IC50). Seven groups of two rats each was used for diuretic study. Ethanol leaf extract was administered intra-peritoneally to the rats at doses of 25, 50, 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight respectively. Furosemide (40 mg/kg) was used as positive control. This was evaluated by measuring the urine volume and urinary electrolyte excretion. The extracts produced a significant increase in urine volume at 200 and 400 mg/kg (1.50 and 1.90) respectively and enhanced urinary excretion of sodium, chloride, potassium and bicarbonate (p<0.05). The result obtained showed that Gongronema latifolium has potential and significant phytochemical, antioxidant and diuretic properties.

Author (s) Details

Dr. O. D. Omodamiro,
Pharmacology Unit, Department of Biochemistry, College of Natural Sciences, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike, Abia State, Nigeria.

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Phytochemicals and Acute Toxicity of Moringa oleifera Roots in Mice | Chapter 08 | Modern Advances in Pharmaceutical Research Vol. 3

The phytochemicals used by plants to protect themselves against predators in Moringa oleifera roots were qualitatively identified in the aqueous and ethanol extracts. Its acute toxicity in 24 h was evaluated in Swiss albino mice. M. oleifera, a native plant of the sub-Himalayan tracts of India, Pakistan, Bangladesh and Afghanistan is used in folk medicine. It is claimed to have nutritional, medicinal, socio-economic and industrial values. Many individuals and families consume the roots for their medicinal properties. Despite wide use the roots, the phytochemicals and toxicity profile are not well documented. This study set out to determine the phytochemicals and acute toxicity of M. oleifera roots in mice. The roots were harvested during dry season and air dried. Serial extractions using ether, ethanol and water were done. The harvested phytochemicals were qualitatively identified using standard chemicals procedures. The phytochemicals identified were: Gallic tannins, catechol tennins, steroids and triterponoids, saponins, anthraquinones, alkaloids, and reducing sugars. Acute toxicity was determined by giving a single oral dose to Swiss albino mice and observed for 24 h. The LD50 was calculated using the probit tables. The LD50 of ethanol extract was 17.8 g/kg and that of aqueous extract was 15.9 g/kg. In conclusion, M. oleifera roots contain protective phytochemicals and are relatively non-toxic when given in a single dose.

Author(s) Details

J. N. Kasolo
Department of Physiology, School of Biomedical Sciences, College of Health Sciences, Makererere University, P.O.Box 7072, Kampala, Uganda.

L. Ojok
Department of Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Makererere University, Kampala, Uganda.

W. Ogwal-Okeng
Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, School of Biomedical Sciences, College of Health Sciences, Makererere University, Kampala, Uganda.

G. S. Bimenya
Department of Pathology, School of Biomedical Sciences, College of Health Sciences, Makererere University, Kampala, Uganda.

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Antibacterial Activity of Ocimum gratissimum (scent leaf) on Some Pathogenic Gastrointestinal Bacteria | Chapter 11 | Theory and Applications of Microbiology and Biotechnology Vol. 2

The emergence of antibiotic resistance as well as the recent undesirable side effect of some of the commercially available antibiotics has led to the screening of plant extract in order to discover new drug that could serve as alternative therapy for the treatment of various infections and diseases. Fresh leaf of Ocimum gratissimum (scent leaf) sample was collected, air-dried at room temperature and blended to powder using electric blender. The extraction was done using reflux extraction method and methanol as solvent. The phytochemical analysis and the antibacterial activity of O. gratissimum were determined to ascertain the different phytochemicals present in the plant extract. The extract was also tested against some selected Gram negative intestinal pathogenic bacteria; Escherichia coli, Shigella and Salmonella species, by reconstituting the extract in dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) to obtain different concentration (0.2, 0.1, 0.05 and 0.025 g/ml) and agar well diffusion techniques were used to evaluate the antibacterial susceptibility of the leaf extract. The qualitative phytochemical analysis of the extract revealed the presence of alkaloid, anthraquinone, flavonoid, glycoside, phenol, saponin, steroid and tannins. The result of antibacterial analysis showed that the extract of O. gratissimum has antibacterial activity against E. coli. This could be as a result of the presence of various phytochemicals or the interaction of one or more of the identified metabolites against the test organisms. However, there was no zone of inhibition (antibacterial effect) recorded on Salmonella and Shigella spp. as they were resistant to the extract. The results obtained from this research, suggest that Escherichia coli was susceptible to the leaf extract and the plant could be used as potential source of natural product for the treatment of infection.

Author(s) Details

Agholor Kin
Department of Biological Science, Niger State Polytechnic, Zungeru, Niger State, Nigeria.

Lucy M. Yaki
Department of Microbiology, Kaduna State University, Kaduna, Kaduna State, Nigeria.

Idris Abubakar
Department of Biological Science, Niger State Polytechnic, Zungeru, Niger State, Nigeria.

Lucy F. Olusola
Department of Biological Science, Niger State Polytechnic, Zungeru, Niger State, Nigeria.

Rakiya Zubairu
Department of Biological Science, Niger State Polytechnic, Zungeru, Niger State, Nigeria

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Phytochemical Analysis, Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activity of Clitoria ternatea leaves of Blue and White Flower | Chapter 09 | Current Research in Science and Technology Vol. 2

The present study was conducted to screen the phytochemical constituents, identifying the compounds present by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometric analysis (GC-MS), functional groups present by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrophotometer (FT- IR) in the ethyl acetate leaf extract of Clitoria ternatea white flower, explicit the antibacterial activity, antioxidant assay of using methanol and ethyl acetate leaves extract of Clitoria ternatea blue and white flower. Clitoria ternatea leaves of blue flower possess 7.5% of total ash whereas leaves of white flower possess 8.5%. The phytochemical analysis revealed that leaves of blue flower contain alkaloids, flavonoids, phenols, terpenoids, glycosides, coumarins, catechol, quinines, gum and mucilage while, in leaves of white flower had alkaloids, glycosides, catechol, gum and mucilage were present. A total of 8 compounds such as 1- Decanol, 2- ethyl, 1- Eicosanol, Sulphurous acid octadecyl 2- propyl ester, Eicosanoic acid, L- (+)- ascorbic acid 2,6- dihexadecanoate, Sulphurous acid, pentadecyl 2-propyl ester, Oleic acid, 1-Hexyl-2 nitrocyclohexane were detected in the ethyl acetate leaves extract of C. ternatea white flower using GC-MS. FT-IR analysis of the same had  characteristic bands at 2983.88 cmˉ1 indicating the presence of C-H stretching. The ethyl acetate leaves extract of white flower C. ternatea had antibacterial and antifungal activity against E. coli, S. aureus, K. pneumoniae, P. aeruginosa, P. mirabilis, C. albicans, C. tropicalis, C. kruzi. The total phenolic content of methanolic leaf extract of C. ternatea blue flower was 25 mg Gallic Acid Equivalent/ g Dry Weight (mg GAE / g DW), and leaf of white flower was 18 mg GAE / g DW. The total flavonoid content of methanolic leaf extract of C. ternatea blue flower was 10 mg Quercetin Equivalent/g Dry Weight (mg QE / g DW), and leaf of white flower was 5 mg QE/g DW. Maximum scavenging activity of 86.6% was observed in leaf ethyl acetate extract of blue flower (DPPH assay). Maximum scavenging activity of 82% (H2O2 assay) and 95% (total antioxidant) was observed in the ethyl acetate leaf extract of white flower. 

Author(s) Details

J. Anbumalarmathi
Department of Biotechnology, Stella Maris College (Autonomous), Chennai -600 086, India.

A. Divya
Department of Biotechnology, Stella Maris College (Autonomous), Chennai -600 086, India.

S. Aruna Sharmili
Department of Biotechnology, Stella Maris College (Autonomous), Chennai -600 086, India.

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Phytochemical and Antiepileptic Activity of the Ethanol Leaf Extracts of Culcasia falcifolia in Pentylenetetrazole Induced Seizure in Mice | Chapter 05 | Recent Advances in Biological Research Vol. 4

Aim: To investigate the phytochemicals and the anticonvulsant activity of the ethanol leaf extract of Culcasia falcifolia used in the traditional medical treatment of epilepsy.

Methodology: The phytochemical screening was carried out using standard protocol while the anticonvulsant activity was studied using Pentylenetetrazole in mice.

Result: The preliminary phytochemical screening carried out on the ethanol extract of Culcasia falcifolia revealed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, polyphenols, and glycosides. In the anticonvulsant activity, there was a significant (*p< 0.05, **p<0.01) increase in the mean latency of tonic convulsion (243.72 ± 6.90*, 402.56 ± 5.52**) and significant (*p< 0.05, **p<0.01) decrease in the mean duration of tonic convulsion (192.62 ± 7.72*, 158.99 ± 8.66**) in a dose-dependent manner at the dose of 200 and 400 mg/kg body wt. respectively. The extract at 400 mg/kg body wt. showed 100% protection against mortality.

Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that the ethanol leaf extract of Culcasia falcifolia possesses anticonvulsant activity in PTZ induced seizure in mice. Therefore, the findings of the present study, suggests that ethanol extract of Culcasia falcifolia leaves has anticonvulsant activity against PTZ-induced seizures in mice by modulating GABA receptor-mediated inhibitory neurotransmission, reducing the T-type of Ca++ currents, activating GABAA receptors and facilitating the GABA-mediated opening of Chloride channel. Based on the folkloric claims, we infer that the decoction of the leaves of Culcasia falcifolia could be integrated into health care system for the management of epilepsy.

Author(s) Details

A. Gracelyn Portia
Department of Biological Sciences, University of Eastern Africa, Baraton, P.O.Box – 2500, Eldoret – 30100, Kenya.

D. M. Mwaniki
Department of Biological Sciences, University of Eldoret, P.O.Box 1125-30100 Eldoret, Kenya.

A. G. M. Ng’wena
Department of Medical Physiology, Maseno University, Maseno – 40105, Kenya.

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