Prevalence and Intensity of Plasmodium falciparum Malaria and the Challenges of Microscopy and Rapid Test Diagnosis (RDT) Diagnostic methods in North- Western Nigeria | Chapter 11 | Current Trends in Disease and Health Vol. 1

Aims: The study was undertaken to estimate the prevalence and intensity of Plasmodium falciparum infection, in randomly selected areas of north-western Nigeria and to evaluate the efficiency of microscopy and rapid diagnostic test (RDT) in detecting and determining intensity of P. falciparum infection.

Study Design: The study was conducted in north –western Nigeria, between April and August, 2013.

Methodology: A total of one thousand four hundred and seventy (1,470) blood samples were collected into EDTA sample bottles. Rapid one step malaria HRP2 Rapid test was carried out and  stained in Giemsa and examined by thick and thin blood smears using microscope (X 40 objective ) (Cheesbrough, 2016). 

Results: A total of eight hundred and thirty four 834(56.5%) cases were positive microscopically while two hundred and eighty seven 287(19.52%) were positive with the RDT which showed high significance (P<0.05) in the efficiency of the diagnostic methods. Low intensity (+) was higher in 542 (36.87%) and different significantly within the states (P<0.05).The RDT showed high specificity of 68.21% while a higher sensitivity of47.68% was observed from the microscopy results which differed significantly (P<0.05) when the two methods were compared.

Conclusion: The results of the study established that P. falciparum malaria was endemic in the region with a level of intensity. Microscopy was the most specific method of falciparum malaria diagnosis.

Author(s) Details

M. H. Ruqayyah
Federal University Dutse, Jigawa State, Nigeria.

I. H. Nock
Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria.

I. S. Ndams
Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria.

Prof B. D. J. George
Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria.

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Contribution in the Malaria Control of Substituted 5- chloro-3,4-dihydro-1H-pyrano[3,4-b]-1,10- phenanthrolinone Compounds: Antiplasmodial and Cytotoxic Activities | Chapter 07 | Current Trends in Disease and Health Vol. 1

Background: Malaria is one of the most common parasitic disease in tropical and subtropical regions. Plasmodium falciparum, one of the causative agent of malaria is resistant to many type of antimalarial drugs. This study present in vitro assessment of the antiplasmodial activity of substituted phénanthrolinone compounds.

Methods: A series of 7 substituents were used to substitute the chlorine on the 5 position in the 5-chloro-3,4-dihydro-1H-pyrano[3,4-b]-1,10-phenanthrolinone ring. In vitro antiplasmodial activities were evaluated on chloroquine-sensitive and resistant strains of P. falciparum.

Results: The results showed that compounds 7 and 8 possessing N,N-diethylamino side chain had the best antiplasmodial activities. In addition, the cytotoxic activities were evaluated on HeLa cells and compound 8 was the least cytotoxic of all studied compounds.

Conclusion: The synthesis and antimalarial activity of substituents of compound 2 were carried out. This study has shown that compounds with basic and lipophilic substituents exhibited the best antiplasmodial activity.  Drug resistance of parasites and anopheles remains a major problem in the malaria burden. At present, the best chemically solution to eradicate definitely this disease is establishment of new antimalarial drug which is exempt of any resistance. The 1,10-phenanthroline skeleton was synthesized and studied for it potential new antimalarial activity. Its pharmacomodulation led to several compounds among which compound 8 showed higher activity as compared to the parent compound 2. This compound should be used for future pharmacomodulation particularly to open the lactone ring in basic medium.

Author(s) Details

Pr. Cheikh Sall
Laboratoire de Chimie, UFR des Sciences de la Santé, Université de Thiès, BP 967 Thiès, Sénégal.

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