Background: Prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) programmes provide antiretroviral treatment to HIV-positive pregnant women to reduce the likelihood of their infants acquiring the HIV. However despite concerted efforts to scale-up PMTCT services in Nigeria, the coverage and uptake of the service by pregnant women remain low.
Aim/Objective: This study was carried out to assess the utilization and factors associated with the uptake of PMTCT Services among pregnant women at a tertiary health facility in Akure, Ondo State.
Methodology: This research was an institutional based descriptive cross-sectional study conducted over a period of one month (May 2018). The study population included pregnant women accessing antenatal care at the University of Medical Sciences Teaching Hospital, Akure, Ondo State. Data was collected using interviewer administered questionnaire and analyzed using SPSS Windows 20. The main outcome measured was the utilization of PMTCT services. Factors associated with its utilization was assessed using binary logistic regression. Statistical significance was set at P<0.05.
Results: A total of 400 pregnant women were interviewed with 100% response rate. The mean age of the women was 32 years ± 4.8. The majority of them with their spouses were educated up to the tertiary level. Their mean gestational age was 28 weeks ± 2.2 standard deviation. Among the respondents, 252 (63.2%) had been tested for HIV in the index pregnancy while 148 (36.8%) were not yet tested, those not tested identified lack of counsellors as their main reason. The average time spent before the patients were seen at the clinic was reported to be too long in 287 (71.7%), so 368 (92.5%) of the women were not satisfied with the service. Factors found to be positively associated with PMTCT utilization were the educational level of the women and their partners which could be in favour of their utilizing PMTCT services and inadequate counsellors which may not be in favour of utilization of the service.
Conclusion: All the respondents did not utilize the PMTCT services in the index pregnancy and the main reason being inadequate number of counsellors. There is the need to improve the quality of PMTCT services in the study setting.
Dr. (Mrs.) Theresa Azonima Irinyenikan
Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Medical Sciences / University of Medical Sciences Teaching Hospital, Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria.
Hepatitis B virus is a serious global
public health problem and is endemic in Africa, including Nigeria. Infection of
pregnant women during the second and third trimester poses a threat of 10 and
90% respectively for vertical transmission. A total of ninety two blood samples
from consenting pregnant women were screened for HBsAg and HBeAg using ELISA
kit (Cortez Diagnostic Inc, USA). Cord blood samples collected from five
neonates of women positive for HBsAg and HBeAg were screened for HBcIgM using
the same test kit. Questionnaire was used to collect data on demography,
history of blood transfusion and presence of tribal mark from the pregnant
women. Overall prevalences of 8.7% (8/92) and 5.4% (5/92) for HBsAg and HBeAg
seromarkers, respectively were obtained. Mean age of the pregnant women was
25.75 with 27.2% within 20–24 years and 28.3% within 25–29 years, however this
distribution was not statistically significant (p= 0.6840). Fifty percent (50%)
of HBsAg positive women were within the age group of 25–29 years while 80% of
HBeAg positive women were within the age group of 20 – 24 years. Blood
transfusion (p= 0.002791) and tribal mark (p=0.00265) were found to be
associated with acquisition of the virus. Eighty percent (80%: 4/5) of the
neonates screened from HBsAg and HBeAg positive women were reactive for HBcIgM.
The prevalence of surface antigen in this study suggests the endemicity of
hepatitis B virus in the study area while the presence of both surface and
envelope antigens in pregnant women portend infectivity. These results suggest
the utmost need for establishment of a sustainable intervention measure that
would protect not only pregnant women but women of childbearing age in order to
mitigate spread of the virus. Screening for other hepatitis B virus seromarkers
besides HBsAg before blood transfusion is also advocated.
S. O. Oyinloye Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Science, University of Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria.
M. Yusuf Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Science, University of Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria.
E. S. Yedak Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Science, University of Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria.
J. Oyebanji Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Science, University of Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria.
This was a cross sectional study designed to assess the level of awareness, ownership and use of insecticide treated bed nets (ITNs) by pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in Anambra state, South Eastern Nigeria. A structured questionnaire was self administered to 700 volunteer pregnant women aged 17 to 45 years recruited during routine antenatal care in selected hospitals in the study area to capture information on use of ITNs. The information obtained was analyzed using simple ratios, percentages and charts. The result showed that 651 (93%) of the women were fully aware of the use of ITNs during pregnancy, 420 (60%) owned ITNs in their homes while only 308 (46%) used the nets partially or wholly, and 392 (56%) never used the nets. The level of awareness of pregnant women concerning the use of ITNs was high while actual ownership and use was low. Public health education needs to be intensified to create more awareness and increase ownership and use.
S. N. Ukibe Department of Prosthesis and Orthopaedic Technology, School of Health Technology, Federal University of Technology Owerri (FUTO), P.M.B 1526, Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria.
J. I. Mbanugo Department of Parasitology and Entomology, Faculty of Biosciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Anambra State, Nigeria.
N. R. Ukibe Department of Human Biochemistry, Faculty of Health Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nnewi campus, P.M.B. 5001, Nnewi,Nigeria.
L. C. Ikeakor Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Faculty of Health Sciences, Anambra State University Teaching Hospital, Awka, Nigeria.