Economy-wide Learning: A Comparative Study of Manufacturing and Non-manufacturing Sectors in Japan | Chapter 1 | Emerging Issues and Development in Economics and Trade Vol.4

In knowledge economies, building technological capability is a continuous process and unarguably key to industrial policy development. Learning [by-doing in the industry] has been linked to a reduction in unit labor cost and overall production cost of goods and services. In this study, we comparatively studied the learning pattern of the Japanese manufacturing and service sector using industrial-leveldata. This study is perhaps the first attempt to comparatively study the productivity of the Japanese industry using the learning curve at the aggregate level. Looking back to almost 4 decade-long (19802017) of financial input-output data, we estimated the trend in technological learning using various learning models, calculated the annual progress ratios (via production function imputed in log-linear & cubic model) and revealed the dynamic technological learning across the two sectors at the aggregate level. This enabled us to identify years with good learning rates which are synonymous with costsaving across the two sectors of the economy. The results show that, while learning was restored and sustained in the services sector of the economy in the last decade, the same cannot be said about the manufacturing sector where learning (cost-saving ability) was completely lost. We conclude that (1) as typical of advance economy, Japan is now a service-oriented economy with manufacturing playing a complementary role, (2) the service sector may have benefited from advances in technologies and innovations from the manufacturing to achieve higher productivity at a lower cost.

Author(s) Details

Joseph Junior Aduba
Graduate School of Economics, Ritsumeikan University, Japan.

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Productivity of Fissured Aquifers from Precambrian Basement of San Pedro (Southwestern of Côte d’Ivoire) | Chapter 01 | Current Perspectives to Environment and Climate Change Vol. 2

This study focuses on characterization of hard-rock aquifers in South Western Côte d’Ivoire where previous quantitative hydrogeological studies were not enough. San Pedro is localized in South-Western Côte d’Ivoire where the basement is dominated by folded and fissured crystalline rocks. Several years ago, many drinking water supply initiatives were performed in this study area considering its particular geographical location and hydrological trumps. This study aims to contribute to the best knowledge of hydrogeological potentialities of this basement pointing to reduce doubtful quality surface water using. The database incorporated satellite radar image and reports of boreholes. The methodological approach was based on remote sensing, fracture characterizing, pumping tests reports and multivariate statistical analysis. Treatment of satellite image highlighted 271 fractures ranged between 2.11 and 39.37 km. Rock mass permeability due to fractures fluctuated between 2.35E-07 and 8.13E-06 m.s-1. Spatial distribution of aquifers permeability due to fractures has highlighted three theoretical groundwater flow paths. Water yields delivered from aquifers of gneiss, granodiorite and migmatite are higher than those delivered from the aquifer of mica schist and granite. The productivity of hard-rock aquifers did not exclusively depend on fracturing density and thicknesses of weathered layers. It is also influenced by the positioning of boreholes on fractures nodes, aquifer’s transmissivity, slope and the structure of bedrocks. Predictive relationship about disponibility of groundwaters was established by following equation: yield (Q) = 0,739Transmissivity + 0,138slope. Presents results have provided a guideline in searching potential zones of high quantity and best quality drinking water. These results are encouraging because they contribute to creating a Spatial Hydrogeological Information System for groundwater exploitation and management in South Western Côte d’Ivoire.

Author(s) Details

Dr.  O. Z. De Lasme
Department of Geosciences, Faculty of Biological Sciences, University Pelefero Gon Coulibaly, BP 1328 Korhogo, Côte d’Ivoire.

M. Youan Ta
Department of Science and Technics of Water and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Earth Sciences and Mining Resources, University Felix Houphouët-Boigny, 22 BP 582 Abidjan 22, Côte d’Ivoire.

A. S. Koffi
Department of Geosciences, Faculty of Biological Sciences, University Pelefero Gon Coulibaly, BP 1328 Korhogo, Côte d’Ivoire.

D. Baka
Department of Science and Technics of Water and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Earth Sciences and Mining Resources, University Felix Houphouët-Boigny, 22 BP 582 Abidjan 22, Côte d’Ivoire.

L. K. Adopo
Department of Science and Technics of Water and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Earth Sciences and Mining Resources, University Felix Houphouët-Boigny, 22 BP 582 Abidjan 22, Côte d’Ivoire.

T. Lasm
Department of Science and Technics of Water and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Earth Sciences and Mining Resources, University Felix Houphouët-Boigny, 22 BP 582 Abidjan 22, Côte d’Ivoire.

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View Volume: https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/cpecc/v2

Impact of Auto Exhaust Pollution on Trees | Chapter 03 | Advances and Trends in Agricultural Sciences Vol. 2

Environmental pollution and its impact on living organisms is worldwide problem. The pollutants discharged from the automobile activities are particulate matter, heavy metals (Pb and Cd), carbon dioxide, oxides of nitrogen and oxides producing toxic effects on plant growth. The other common effects are reduced yield of flowers, branch length, leaf area and reduction in seed germination percentage. This book chapter provide some information about the impact of auto exhaust pollution on plant growth. The importance of tree in the urban environment cannot be ignore. A number of studies on the effects of air pollution on tree growth have been carried out by researchers over the past many years in developed and in developing countries. Trees play an important role in maintaining the ecological balance, pollution reduction and lessening the burden of pollutant by absorbing pollutants. However, trees in urban cities are growing in a severe stressful environment due to incomplete burning of fossil fuel and badly maintained vehicles resulting shorten life span of plant. The growth of plants could be affected by several reasons and one of them is the presence of toxic pollutants derived from the auto vehicular exhaust emission.

Author(s) Details

Prof. Dr. Muhammad Zafar Iqbal
Adjunct Professor, Department of Botany, University of Karachi, Karachi- 75270, Pakistan.

Dr. Muhammad Shafiq, P.G.D. (P.A.), M.A.S. (H.R.), M.Sc. Ph.D.
Department of Botany, University of Karachi, Karachi -75250, Pakistan.

Prof. Dr. Mohammad Athar Tariq, DSc.
California Department of Food and Agriculture, 1220 N Street, Room 325, Sacramento, CA 95814, USA.

Dr. Muhammad Kabir
Department of Biological Sciences, University of Sargodha, Sub-Campus Bhakkar, Bhakkar-30000, Punjab, Pakistan.

Dr. Zia-Ur-Rehman Farooqi
Department of Botany, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan.

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View Volume: https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/atias/v2

Studies on Performance of Newly Released Apple Cultivar on Clonal Rootstocks | Chapter 05 | Advances in Applied Science and Technology Vol. 5

Apple (Malus × domestica Borkh) occupies a significant place in the horticultural wealth of temperate zone. The growth and productivity of apple in Indian conditions can be optimised by replacing out-dated  depleted  standard  Delicious  cultivars  by  the  improved  high  yielding  cultivars  and  adopting standard clonal rootstocks instead of seedling stock in addition to improved management practices. The  present  investigation  was  undertaken  to  make  a  preliminary  assessment  for  studying  the performance of newly released apple cultivars viz, Lal Ambri, Sunhari, Shireen, Firdous and Akbar on clonal  rootstocks  M-9  and  MM-106. The  experiment  was  carried  out  at  the  Experimental  Farm  of SKUAST-Kashmir, and was laid out in a randomized block design with ten treatment combinations. The  results  obtained  revealed  that  the  varieties  excepting  shireen  worked  on  MM-106  rootstock resulted in higher plant height, per cent fruit set and fruit retention and the plants which were raised on M-9  rootstock  resulted  in  more  plant  girth  and  plant  spread. Commencement  of  flowering,  fruit maturity, fruit weight and firmness occurred earlier in all varieties worked on M-9. Among these tested varieties, Lal Ambri, Shireen and Firdous developed red colour intensity excepting Sunhari and Akbar. It is concluded that apple trees raised on MM-106 rootstock resulted in higher yield than the trees raised on M-9 rootstock. Cultivar Akbar was better in comparison to other varieties, Lal Ambri showed maximum red colour intensity. Fruits from trees on M-9 rootstock showedhigher red colour intensity. However, Shireen performed better in these parameters on M-9 rootstock.

Author(s) Details

Dr. Rifat Bhat

Assistant Professor cum Junior Scientist, Division of Fruit Science, SKUAST-K, Shalimar, Faculty of Horticulture, India.

Sharbat Hussain

Ph.D scholar at Faculty of Horticulture, Division of Fruit Science, SKUAST-Kashmir, Shalimar,India.

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View Volume: https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/aast/v5