Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Kidney and Renal Pelvis: A Review and Update of the Literature | Chapter 06 | New Insights into Disease and Pathogen Research Vol. 4

Background: Primary squamous cell carcinoma of renal pelvis/kidney (PSCCRP/K) is rare with controversies regarding its histogenesis.

Aim: To review the literature.

Methods: Various internet data bases were searched.

Literature Review: Few cases of PSCCRP/K have been reported with only three cases of PSCC of the renal parenchyma without involvement of renal pelvis. Some PSCCRP/Ks have been associated with renal calculi, chronic infections, vesicoureteric reflux. Some cases had developed many years following successful percutaneous nephrolithotomy; a case was reported many years after curative radiotherapy for testicular tumour. The tumours are initially diagnosed in advanced stages; generally the prognosis has been poor following nephrectomy/nephrouretectomy. Conventional radiology imaging features of the disease are non-specific and cannot differentiate the lesion from other tumours or xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis. Diagnosis is based upon strict histopathological criteria of the microscopic characteristics of the tumour. Primary tumour elsewhere should be excluded with radiological imaging. PSCCRP/K should be suspected when a renal/renal pelvis mass is found with a history of chronic or past stone disease treatment. Perhaps if patients who have undergone treatment for kidney stones are carefully followed-up with radiological imaging, (for example, ultra-sound-scans and/or MRI and when eventually required a CT scan properly indicated and performed) for a long time, PSCCR/Ks may be diagnosed at an early stage of the disease in order to provide early curative treatment.

Conclusions: PSCCRP/Ks have been reported sporadically and a number of them have been associated with renal calculi and chronic infections of the urinary tract. These malignancies on the whole are initially diagnosed in advanced stages and hence associated with poor prognosis. Histopathology examination of the lesion so far is the definite way to confirm the diagnosis. PSCCRP/K should be considered a differential diagnosis when a patient is found to have a renal / renal pelvis mass and a history of treatment for renal pelvis calculi, or chronic inflammations.

Author(s) Details

Anthony Kodzo-Grey Venyo [MB ChB FRCS(Ed) FRCSI FGCS Urol. LLM]
Department of Urology, North Manchester General Hospital, Manchester, United Kingdom.

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Carcinosarcoma of Ovary, It’s Histopathological, Management and Prognostic Analysis with Review of Literature | Chapter 15 | New Insights into Disease and Pathogen Research Vol. 2

Carcinosarcoma is a mixed malignant biphasic tumour representing a rare entity and comprises of both epithelial and mesenchymal components. Primary ovarian carcinosarcoma is a rare neoplasm with a number of cases reported in the literature in the hundreds. It accounts for less than 1% of all ovarian tumours. These tumours are usually diagnosed at older age and advanced stage. It has aggressive clinical behaviour and survival depends on stage at presentation. Radiological imagings cannot differentiate carcinosarcomas from other ovarian cancers. Diagnosis is based upon histological findings. Cytoreductive debulking surgery is a crucial part in the treatment of carcinosarcoma of ovary. The role of adjuvant chemotherapy regimen is still controversial. Combination chemotherapy with taxane and platinum based regimen or ifosfamide and platinum based regimen are considered as adjuvant treatment. Despite aggressive treatment modalities such as surgery and chemotherapy, the outcome is poor. Response to therapy and overall survival for carcinosarcoma are poor in comparison to that of epithelial ovarian malignancies. Due to rarity of the disease, such poor prognosis needs collaboration of studies with molecular analysis to obtain new therapeutic guidelines to improve survival of the patients.

Author(s) Details

Dr. Priyanka Priyadarshini
Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Calcutta National Medical College and Hospital, Kolkata, West Bengal, 700014, India.

Dr. Tapan Kumar Sahoo
Department of Radiotherapy, Acharya Harihara Regional Cancer Centre, Cuttack, Odisha, 753007, India.

Read full article: http://bp.bookpi.org/index.php/bpi/catalog/view/71/859/659-1
View Volume: https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/nidpr/v2