On the Local and Global stability analysis for the Typhoid Fever Disease incorporating Protection against Infection | Chapter 05 | Advances in Mathematics and Computer Science Vol. 3

A mathematical model for typhoid fever disease incorporating protection against infection is hereby analyzed. Specifically, local and global Stability analysis of the model are carried out to determine the conditions that favour the spread of the disease in a given population. Numerical simulation of the model carried showed that an increase in protection leads to low disease prevalence in a population.

Author(s) Details

Dr. Joyce Kagendo Nthiiri
Lecturer and Chairperson, Department of Mathematics, Masinde Muliro University of Science and Technology, P.O.Box 190-50100, Kakamega, Kenya.

Dr. George Owuor Lawi
Senior lecturer, Department of Mathematics, Masinde Muliro University of Science and Technology, P.O.Box 190-50100, Kakamega, Kenya.

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View Volume: https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/amacs/v3

Influence of Microorganisms on Corrosion Induction and Protection | Chapter 03 | Advances and Trends in Biotechnology and Genetics Vol. 1

The microbial corrosion or the microbiologically induced corrosion (MIC) is defined as the deterioration of metals as a result of metabolic activities of microorganisms. MIC leads to important economical losses in many industries and services. Anaerobic Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) is a serious type of MIC commonly found in the oil and gas industry sector and are responsible for most highly corrosion damages to offshore steel structures. The SRB present in the crude oil uses the sulfate as an electron acceptor generating corrosive hydrogen sulfide (H2S) as one of their products. Other types of MIC are the aerobic iron and manganese bacteria mainly responsible about the accelerated pitting attacks of stainless steel. Most MIC takes the form of pits that form below the colonies of living organic matter and mineral and the deposits of biological origin. The most affected devices by MIC are stainless and carbon steel tanks, pipelines, heat exchangers, fuel storage tanks. On the other hand, many beneficial bacteria, (such as Bacillus lichiniformis) have the ability to protect metal surfaces from corrosion via different mechanisms including biofilms and formation of sticky protective layer of γ-poly-glutamate or antibiotics on metal surfaces. The aim of the present work is to present a spotlight on the history and the role of microorganisms in corrosion induction and prevention. This chapter includes corrosion inhibition mechanisms employing beneficial microorganisms with special reference to microbial biofilms to avoid the dramatic economic loss due to corrosion. On the contrary, different types of harmful microorganisms included in corrosion are also discussed including iron and sulfur reducing bacteria.

Author(s) Details

Rawia Mansour
Egyptian Petroleum Research Institute (EPRI), 1 Elzhoor Region, P.O.Box 11727, Cairo, Egypt.

Ali Mohamed Elshafei
Department of Microbial Chemistry, National Research Centre, 33 El Bohouth St. (Former El Tahrir st.), Dokki, Giza, P.O.Box 12622, Egypt.

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View Volume: https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/atbg/v1