Infection and Foot Care in Diabetics Seeking Treatment in a Tertiary Care Hospital, Bhubaneswar, Odisha State, India | Chapter 15 | Current Trends in Disease and Health Vol. 3

Diabetes mellitus is a major public health problem that can cause a number of serious complications. Foot ulceration is one of its most common complications. Poor foot care knowledge and practices are important risk factors for foot problems among diabetics. The present study was undertaken in the diabetes outpatient department of a tertiary care hospital to assess the practices regarding foot care in diabetes, find out the determinants of foot ulcer in diabetics, and offer suggestions to improve care. After informed consent, a total of 124 diabetics were interviewed to collect all relevant information. The diabetic foot care practice responses were converted into scores and for the sake of analysis were inferred as poor (0–5), fair (6-7) and good (>7) practices. Of the study population, 68.5% (85/124) consisted of men. The disease was diagnosed within the last 5 years for 66% (81/124) of the study participants. Of the study subjects, 83% (103/124) were on oral hypoglycemic agents (OHAs), 15.3% (19) on insulin and 2 on diet control only. Among them about 18.5% had a history of foot ulcer. 37.9% reported using special slippers, 12% diabetics used slippers indoors and 66.9% used slippers while using toilet. Of the study subjects, 67.8% said that feet should be inspected daily. 27.4% said they regularly applied oil/moisturizer on their feet. There is a need on part of the primary or secondary physician and an active participation of the patient to receive education about foot care as well as awareness regarding risk factors, recognition, clinical evaluation and thus prevention of the complications of diabetes.

Author(s) Details

Sonali Kar

Department of Community Medicine, Kalinga Institute of Medical Sciences, KIIT University, Patia, Bhubaneswar 751024, India.

Shalini Ray

Kalinga Institute of Medical Sciences, KIIT University, Patia, Bhubaneswar 751024, India.

Dayanidhi Mehe

Department of Medicine, Kalinga Institute of Medical Sciences, KIIT University, Patia, Bhubaneswar 751024, India.

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Review of Edible Plants in Dumpsites: Risks of Heavy Metals Toxicity and Implications for Public Health | Chapter 13 | Advances and Trends in Agricultural Sciences Vol. 3

Studies of dumpsites have revealed that the surrounding soils and water are contaminated with high threshold of heavy metals through anthropogenic inputs. In this review, the uptake and toxicity risks of these heavy metals by habitual edible plants at levels above threshold limit and the implications for public health have been discussed. Edible plants are plants with nutritional and medicinal potentials which can salvage numerous human and animal needs when taken. Edible plants like most other underutilized plants in dumpsites have developed mechanisms which enable them to not only survive but accumulate high level of toxic heavy metals due to high level of environmental metal load in the dumpsites. This ultimately could lead to high human and animal exposure to these toxic elements through food-chain/food-web or direct ingestion of soils. The toxic effects caused by excess concentrations of these heavy metals in living organisms vary considerably and present numerous clinical situations ranging from neurological disorder, cellular damage among others and death in extreme cases. This review suggest the urgent need for policy makers to regulate the use of dumpsites for arable farming and the dependence on edible plants in dumpsites to avert heavy metal poisoning in populations.

Author(s) Details

Nwogo Ajuka Obasi
Environmental Biochemistry, Health and Toxicology Research Unit, Department of Medical Biochemistry, Federal University Ndufu-Alike Ikwo, Nigeria.

Mrs. Stella Eberechukwu Obasi
Department of Science Laboratory Technology, Akanu Ibiam Federal Polytechnic Unwana, Nigeria.

Getrude Obianuju Aloh
Department of Geography and Meteorology, Faculty of Environmental Sciences, Enugu State University of Science and Technology, Enugu State, Nigeria.

Sunday Oge Elom
Environmental Biochemistry, Health and Toxicology Research Unit, Department of Medical Biochemistry, Federal University Ndufu-Alike Ikwo, Nigeria.

View Volume: http://bp.bookpi.org/index.php/bpi/catalog/book/130

Knowledge and Awareness of Glaucoma among Population of Western Saudi Arabia, Taif City | Chapter 09 | Current Trends in Disease and Health Vol. 2

Background: Glaucoma is a leading cause of irreversible visual loss worldwide. In Saudi Arabia, it accounts for blindness in 3% of the population above the age of 40 years. Moreover, Hospital-based observations and studies acknowledge the distribution of various subtypes of glaucoma in the kingdom. Nevertheless, there is a paucity of studies which designed to assess general population level of awareness regarding glaucoma in Saudi Arabia. This study aimed to assess general population knowledge and level of awareness in the western region of Saudi Arabia, Taif city.

Methods: A cross-sectional survey was carried out in a public place in Taif City, in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia during the glaucoma awareness week in 2018.  A total of 409 respondents participated and completed the study questionnaire. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) was used for data analysis, where descriptive data was expressed as numbers and percentages, and the Chi-square (χ2) test was applied to test the relationship between variables. Quantitative data was expressed as mean and standard deviation (Mean ± SD), and Mann-Whitney (U) test was applied to compare medians for groups not normally distributed. A p-value of <0.05 was considered as statistically significant.

Results: Of the 409 interviewees participated, 62% were females with a mean age of (26 ±13) years, where the majority of males and females participants had a secondary school education (40% and 42% respectively). Most of the male and female respondents have heard of glaucoma before (63.1% and 61.1 respectively). Male participants defined glaucoma as a group of diseases that can damage the eye’s optic nerve and result in vision loss and blindness (41.1%), while the majority of females defined glaucoma as a slow drainage of fluid within the eye which causes fluid to build up leading to increased intraocular pressure within the eye (39%). Male participants ranked family members as the primary sources of information about glaucoma (41%) followed by medical campaigns (24.2%), while female respondent’s ranked medical campaigns as the primary source of information (34.1%), followed by family members (33%). Female respondents in this study showed a high level of awareness concerning glaucoma disease compared to male respondents. 

Conclusion: While there is relatively good awareness level among the population in Taif city, further studies in different regions of the country on different population sectors are needed to assess knowledge and awareness level for a better understanding of the population’s age distribution, demographic differences regarding glaucoma awareness.

Author(s) Details

Dr. Ashwaq Mohammed Almalki, MD
Department of Ophthalmology, King Abdulaziz Specialist Hospital, Taif, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

Dr. Faisal Ali Alotaibi, MD
Department of Ophthalmology, King Abdulaziz Specialist Hospital, Taif, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

Dr. Ameenah Alkhaldi, MD
College of Medicine, Taif University, Taif, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

Dr. Omar Ahmed Asiri, MD
College of Medicine, Taif University, Taif, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

Dr. Nawwafwaiel Aljuaid, MD
College of Medicine, Taif University, Taif, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

Dr. Amalsaleh Alsofyany, MD
College of Medicine, Taif University, Taif, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

Dr. Asim Ali Alzahrani, MD
College of Medicine, Taif University, Taif, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

Dr. Sarah Binbaz, MD
College of Medicine, Taif University, Taif, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

Dr. Amjad Althagafi, MD
College of Medicine, Taif University, Taif, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

Dr. Sarah Obaid Dhafar, MD
College of Medicine, Taif University, Taif, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

Dr. Amalturki Altowairqi, MD
College of Medicine, Taif University, Taif, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

Dr. Ozoofmatar Alghashmari, MD
College of Medicine, Taif University, Taif, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

Dr. Majed Mansour Aljuaid, MD
College of Medicine, Taif University, Taif, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

Dr. Qasemmuidh Alharthi, MD
College of Medicine, Taif University, Taif, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

Dr. Rayan Khalid Almalki, MD
College of Medicine, Taif University, Taif, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

Dr. Hosamtalal Mashrah, MD
College of Medicine, Taif University, Taif, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

Dr. Ruba Qadi, MD
College of Medicine, Taif University, Taif, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

Dr. Fatmahmeteb Alnufei, MD
College of Medicine, Taif University, Taif, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

Dr. Mohammed Obied Altwerqi, MD
College of Medicine, Taif University, Taif, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

Dr. Mansour Mohammed Altwerqi, MD
College of Medicine, Taif University, Taif, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

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Impact of HIV/AIDS Burden on Economic Growth in Selected Sub- Saharan Africa (SSA) Countries: Evidence from a Dynamic System GMM Estimates | Book Publisher International

HIV/AIDS is seen as not only the leading cause of death in SSA region but a major public health challenge. Currently, 13% of total population workforce in the region lives with the epidemic; the above means that one in every ten adults in the region is HIV/AIDS positive. Regrettably so, there is a link between the epidemic prevalence and poverty. As a result, the study empirically examined the impact of HIV/AIDS burden on economic growth in selected Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) countries: Evidence from a dynamic system GMM estimates utilizing cross-country series of 18 countries in the region for the period of 1986-2015. The choice of the selected 18 SSA countries was driven by factors such as degree of prevalence of the epidemic, level of economic growth and regional affiliations resulting in four major regional blocs: SADC, ECOWAS, CEMAC and COMESA. Expectedly, the study employed a two-step dynamic Blundell-Bond system GMM panel estimation technique alongside with the Diebold and Yilmaz (2012) index variance decomposition approach. This was done to achieve conditional convergence in the growth equation and also to disaggregate the prevalence shock due to the epidemic burden. Series such as output per capita, output per capita growth, HIV/AIDS prevalence, public health expenditure, total investment, number of school enrollment are amongst others used in the study. Several pre-and post-diagnostics were accordingly carried out amongst which are Windmeijer (2005) finite sample correction for standard errors, stationarity test while controlling for heterogeinety, endogeneity or omitted variable biases, Hansen J-statistic for identification, Diff-in-Hansen test for validity of the additional moment restrictions, Breusch-Pagan Lagrange multiplier (LM) and Hausman tests for acceptability of the RE model etc. The findings from the study revealed that HIV/AIDS prevalence, not only have impacted negatively on human capital development and output growth in the region but has also currently been transmitting burden amongst member states thereby rendering the entire region vulnerable; particularly the low income countries. It further found that prevalence rate and income level of a country determines the level of her vulnerability to the epidemic burden in the region. The study therefore recommends that since members of SADC sub-region with very high prevalence rates are seen as powerful vector of contagion; therefore, a good understanding of cross-border epidemic burden spillovers on growth within the region is essential for policy coordination in the areas of preventive measures (reducing morbidity and mortality), improved capital inflow for inclusive growth ceteris paribus. Finally, it was recommended that the region should drive growth process as a unit.

Author(s) Details

Diyoke, Kenneth Onyeka
Department of Economics, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences, Nile University of Nigeria, Abuja- Nigeria.

Read full article: http://bp.bookpi.org/index.php/bpi/catalog/view/83/1173/817-1
View Volume: https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/mono/978-93-89562-58-3