Plant Passive Immunity: Micromorphological and Biochemical Features of the Maloideae (Rosaceae) External Tissues | Chapter 1 | Current Research Trends in Biological Science Vol. 1

The defeat of the fruits of fungal diseases is currently an important issue of plant science and is also of great economic importance. With the help of microscopic methods the leaves and fruits surface tissues of plants of four genera of the Maloideae subfamily were screened: Malus Mill., Pyrus L., Cydonia Mill., Mespilus L. and attempts were made to explain the dependence of mycosis damage on micro structural features. The species composition of fungi that cause damage to the Maloideae leaves and fruits in the Russia southern regions is analyzed. It is established that among pathogens with different types of parasitism there are common excitants, as well as highly specialized responses as on Mespilus germanica L. Higher resistance to the complex of fungal diseases, in comparison with apple and pear, was found in quince and medlar. This stability at the initial stage of the pathological process is associated with structural features such as micro morphology of the fruits and stomata cuticle in the abaxial epidermis of leaves. The leaves stomatal openings of medlar are narrow with raised outgrowths, on the surface of the fruits – the layered structure of the cuticular layer. Quince has a continuous cuticular cover. In the species least affected by mycoses, a high content of very-longchain fatty acids in the external tissues was revealed, which may be one of the factors of resistance to pathogens.  In addition, the studied species revealed differences in the content of polyphenols, which can inhibit the development of pathogens at the stage of their penetration. Thus, during the study, using the example of the Maloideae subfamily, we identified several factors of passive immunity of plants. Conventionally, they can be divided into two groups: mechanical and chemical, working at various stages of pathogen penetration into plant organism.

Author(s) Details

Alexander S. Voronkov 
Timiryazev Institute of Plant Physiology RAS, 127276, Moscow, Botanicheskaya St. 35, Russia.

Tamara Kh. Kumachova
Russian State Agrarian University – Moscow Timiryazev Agricultural Academy, 127550, Moscow, Timiryazevskaya St. 49, Russia.

Tatiana V. Ivanova 
Timiryazev Institute of Plant Physiology RAS, 127276, Moscow, Botanicheskaya St. 35, Russia.

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The Antibiotic Resisting Profile of Salmonella spp Isolated from the Sewage of the Campus of the University of Cocody, Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire | Chapter 04 | Current Trends in Disease and Health Vol. 1

Background: Recent studies have shown that wastewater is contaminated by salmonella sp., pathogenic antibiotics-resisting bacteria. Using wastewater in periurban agriculture in Abidjan is likely to be the source of food-borne diseases such as salmonellosis. However, what we know about these resistant salmonella spp. in wastewater is limited in the country.

Aims: This study aims to establish the susceptibility profile of Salmonella spp., isolated from wastewater to antibiotics and to antimetabolite commonly used by medical practitioners.

Study Design: Spatio-temporal variation was taken into account.

Place and Duration of Study: The study took place from August 2008 to January 2009 at the main campus of the University of Cocody in Abidjan.

Methodology: Sampling was done on a weekly basis. Wastewater samples were collected at four different sewers in the campus area. Salmonella sp was isolated by a standard method of laboratory. The resistance of these isolated species to antibiotics was determined according to the disk diffusion method of Kirby-Baeur. The serotypes of salmonella were identified with the Kauffman-White table

Results: Five serotypes of eleven strains, which consist of 4 Hato, 3 Farmsen, 2 Derby, 1 Essen and 1 Ovonmouth, were isolated and tested in order to determine their resistance to antibiotics.   Amongst the various classes of antibiotics, high resistance was found to sulfonamid (100%), followed by cefotaxime (46.67%) and tetracycline (9.1%).  Ampicillin, amoxicillin and clavulanic acid, gentamicin, kanamycin, amikacin, ciprofloxacine,  nalidixic acid and chloramphenicol had a high potentiality: their efficacity in the elimination of the Salmonella sp was proved at a level of 100%. Although the majority of strains tested (85.94%) were eliminated by the antibiotics, the serotypes Derby, Hato and Farmsen   showed resistance.

Conclusion: The Wastewater in the area of the main campus of the University of Cocody contains the antibiotic-resisting strains of salmonella sp. In spite of the fact that the efficacity of some antibiotics in the elimination of Salmonella sp. is proved, the resistance of these strains to third generation of cephalosporin and sulfamid is worrisome. Further studies should be carried out to determine the effects of this antibiotic-resisting salmonella species on humain health. This study revealed, the presence of various Salmonella serotypes in wastewater Salmonella Derby, S. Essen, S. Farmsen, S. Hato and S. ovonmouth. It also showed out the degree of resistance of these strains to commonly used antibiotic drugs. It also revealed that the strains are resistant to 3rd generation cephalosporins (β-lactam antibiotics (cefotaxime)), cyclin including tetracycline and antimetabolites (sulfonamide). Even though, 11.58% of Salmonella strains resisted to antibiotics, Salmonella serovars remain totally sensitive to  phenicoles, aminoglycosides, quinolones and other β-lactam particularly the penicillins Group A. These phenotypic characters of Salmonella allow to understand the challenges related to the treatment of salmonellosis and also to understand the necessity on a rational use of antibiotics.

Author(s) Details

Coulibaly Kalpy Julien
Pasteur Institute of Côte d’Ivoire, Laboratory Studies and Research Chemicals and Microbiological Contaminants in Foods (UNERCO) Unit, Côte d’Ivoire.
Laboratory of Environmental Microbiology, Pasteur Institute, Côte d’Ivoire.

Gadji Alahou André Gabazé
Pasteur Institute of Côte d’Ivoire, Laboratory Studies and Research Chemicals and Microbiological Contaminants in Foods (UNERCO) Unit, Côte d’Ivoire.
Laboratory of Environmental Sciences, University Nangui Abrogoua, Côte d’Ivoire.

Koffi Kouadio Stephane
Laboratory of Environmental Microbiology, Pasteur Institute, Côte d’Ivoire.

Yapo Ossey Bernard, PhD
Laboratory of Environmental Sciences, University Nangui Abrogoua, Côte d’Ivoire.

Professor Dosso Mireille
Pasteur Institute of Côte d’Ivoire, Laboratory Studies and Research Chemicals and Microbiological Contaminants in Foods (UNERCO) Unit, Côte d’Ivoire.

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Genetic Variability of Sugarcane Clones as Affected by Major Endemic Diseases in Ferké, Northern Ivory Coast | Chapter 08 | Advances and Trends in Agricultural Sciences Vol. 1

Background: Sugarcane is a major commercial crop grown in tropical and subtropical areas of the world, including West and Central Africa. Across this region, smut, leaf scald and pokkah boeng are considered as endemic diseases, the first two being economically important.

Aims: The overall objective of study was to contribute to sugarcane yield improvement in Ivory Coast. The specific objective was to evaluate the diversity of susceptible sugarcane genotypes mainly in first ratoon crop to three major endemic diseases under natural infection, namely leaf scald, smut and pokkah boeng.

Methodology: The study was carried out over 2 seasons (2016-18) as plant and first ratoon cane at Ferké 1 experimental station under full covering sprinkler irrigation in northern Ivory Coast. Treatments were composed of 863 sugarcane genotypes split into 39 families planted at single row density. Planting was done per genotype in rows of 3 m long depending on families, without replication and compared to the check variety SP70/1006. That check was replicated every five rows to ease comparison with the clones. Phytosanitary observations regarding the three endemic diseases made at the age of five months were subjected to a series of multivariate analyses.

Results: The study showed that most relevant diseases determining the diversity of susceptible sugarcane genotypes were, in descending order, pokkah boeng, smut and leaf scald. Increase in clone infestations on first ratoon cane compared with plant cane was observed regarding the three endemic diseases but more importantly for smut by 51%. The dendrogram deduced from cluster analysis showed that infected genotypes were split into six groups with same families belonging often to different clusters so that no family investigated specifically susceptible or resistant to any disease was determined. In other words, each family investigated was composed of disease-free as well as susceptible genotypes in proportions varying from one family to another.

Conclusions: All families investigated were relevant to maintain the diversity required for the breeding process under way. Examples of recommended families were the following: disease-free (F02, F03, F04, F05, F06), resistant (F01, F06, F07, F08, F09), moderately resistant (F10, F11, F12, F13, F14). It came out from the study that most relevant diseases determining the diversity of susceptible sugarcane genotypes were, in descending order, pokkah boeng, smut and leaf scald. Increase in clone infestations on first ratoon cane compared with plant cane was observed regarding the three endemic diseases but more importantly for smut by 51%. Each family investigated was composed of disease-free as well as susceptible genotypes in a certain proportion which varied from one family to another. Cluster 5 was the most prolific of infected genotypes with 286 clones (33%) split into 36 families (92%) whereas clusters 2, 3 and 4 were the least prolific ones, with 42, 52 and 56 infected genotypes split into 14, 23 and 21 families, respectively. Clusters 1 and 2 were much more associated with genotypes susceptible to smut and pokkah boeng but also with genotypes moderately susceptible to pokkah boeng. Clusters 3 and 4 were associated with genotypes susceptible or highly susceptible to leaf scald. In contrast, clusters 0, 5 and 6 were related to disease-free, resistant or moderately resistant genotypes and which crosses or families would, therefore, be recommended for Ferké agro-ecology. Examples of such families were the following: disease-free (F02, F03, F04, F05, F06), resistant (F01, F06, F07, F08, F09), moderately resistant (F10, F11, F12, F13, F14).

Author  Details:

Yavo Yanick Michaël Béhou

Department of Research and Development, SucafCI/SOMDIAA, 22 Rue Des Carrossiers Treichville Zone 3, 01 P.O.Box 1967 Abidjan 01, Ivory Coast, Côte d’Ivoire and UMRI: Agricultural Sciences and Engineering, EDP/National Polytechnic Institute (INPHB), P.O.Box 1313 Yamoussoukro, Ivory Coast, Côte d’Ivoire

Crépin B. Péné

Department of Research and Development, SucafCI/SOMDIAA, 22 Rue Des Carrossiers Treichville Zone 3, 01 P.O.Box 1967 Abidjan 01, Ivory Coast, Côte d’Ivoire.

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