The Relationship between Stunting and Some Demographic and Socioeconomic Factors among Yemeni Children and Adolescents | Chapter 6 | Current Trends in Disease and Health Vol. 3

The purpose of this study is to evaluate the influence of sex, residence area, age group, school enrollment, poverty status and income quintiles variables on the prevalence of stunting among Yemeni children and adolescents. The investigation was done on all children and adolescents (3004) aged 5-19 years that included in the last Yemeni household Budget Survey (YHBS) data of 2005/2006. The data included a classification to the poverty status of surveyed households. The cutoff of -2 z scores of the height-for-age reference suggested by NCHS, was used to calculate the prevalence rate of stunting. Descriptive, categorical testing, logit modelling statistical analysis tools were used in the investigation. The statistical analysis shows the overall prevalence rate of stunting as 49.5% and the prevalence of stunting among males is higher than females. The prevalence of stunting among rural children and adolescents is higher than the urban children and adolescents and among children and adolescents who were not enrolled is higher than those enrolled. Children and adolescents of poor households were suffering from stunting (52.8%) as comparing to children and adolescents of non-poor households (47.7%). Children and adolescents living with the poorest, second and middle-income households were 1.76, 1.73 and 1.46 times more likely to be stunted respectively. The research provides an evidence that the childhood health situation in Yemen is chaotic and needs careful and effective cooperation and efforts both nationally and internationally to divert the foreseen danger looming.

Author(s) Details

Muhammed A. K. Al-Mansoob

Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, Sana’a University, P.O. Box 12092, Yemen

Muhammed S. A. Masood

Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Education and Language, Amran University, Yemen. View Book – http://bp.bookpi.org/index.php/bpi/catalog/book/148

Association of Adiponectin and Leptin with Coronary Atherosclerosis Severity Indices in Metabolic Syndrome Patients | Chapter 07 | Emerging Research in Medical Sciences Vol. 3

Adipose tissue is considered as an active endocrine organ that releases a large number of adipokines modulating blood pressure, glucose and lipid metabolism, inflammation, and atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis has been found linked with various traditional and novel risk actors. This chapter describe the updated review of published literature and present research findings describing the linkage of extent and severity of coronary atherosclerosis with two of the adipokines, adiponectin and leptin, as novel risk factors in metabolic syndrome (MetS) patients. A pilot, Case-control study was carried under Sadbhavna Medical and Heart Institute, Patiala and, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Drug Research, Punjabi University, Patiala, between January to December 2013. MetS patients (n=55) with age ≥18 years, undergoing angiography for diagnosis and/or interventional treatment of atherosclerosis and 25 matched control subjects were recruited. Evaluation of traditional and novel cardiovascular risk factors (adipose-derived hormones) and their association with angiographic-derived presence and degree of atherosclerosis indices (number of blocked vessels, severity index, and extent index) was carried out. Low serum adiponectin and high total cholesterol level were found as the independent predictors of atherosclerosis for number of blocked vessels. For extent and severity index, low adiponectin level was the only significant and independent predictor. Leptin and adiponectin/leptin (A/L) ratio could not prove as significant predictors (p≥0.05). Based on the results, it was concluded that Total cholesterol, adiponectin, leptin and A/L ratio might play a vital pathogenic role not only in the occurrence, but also in the severity, extent, number of vessels blocked complexity in MetS.

Author(s) Details

Kanchan Vohra
Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Drug Research, Punjabi University, Patiala, Punjab, India.

Sikander Garg
Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Drug Research, Punjabi University, Patiala, Punjab, India.

Sudhir Varma
Department of Cardiology, Sadbhavna Medical and Heart Institute, Patiala, Punjab, India.

Harpreet Singh Kalra
Department of Medicine, Sadbhavna Medical and Heart Institute, Patiala, Punjab, India.

View Books: http://bp.bookpi.org/index.php/bpi/catalog/book/118

Predicting Contrast-Associated AKI for Intravenous Contrast Exposure and Non-coronary Angiography Procedures: A Review of the Literature | Chapter 04 | Current Trends in Medicine and Medical Research Vol. 3

Introduction: Although cases of contrast associated AKI (CA-AKI) have been reported over the years and  several  studies  exist  on  the  subject,  there  has  been  little  success  in  terms  of  developing  a generally acceptable prediction model for this preventable disease. Majority of work done has been on patients under going coronary angiography and are not generalisable due to heterogeneity of patients and procedure related factors.

The aim of this chapter is to review the epidemiology and prediction models of CA-AKI in patients receiving intravenous contrast for non-coronary angiography procedures.

Conclusion: Although  non-coronary  procedures  are  more  routinely  performed  in  most  institutions, very few prediction models exist for patients undergoing these procedures and this limits preventive efforts. Clearly,  prediction  models  developed  for  PCI  should  not  be  adopted  for  non-coronary angiography procedures.

Author(s) Details

Dr Ogochukwu Okoye

Nephrology Unit, Department of Medicine, Delta State University Teaching Hospital, Oghara, Delta state, Nigeria.

Read full article: http://bp.bookpi.org/index.php/bpi/catalog/view/42/169/314-1

View Volume: https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/ctmmr/v3