Blood Groups and Periodontal Disease | Chapter 08 | Innovations in Medicine and Medical Research Vol. 1

The presence of putative periodontal pathogens is crucial to the development of inflammatory periodontal disease, but host immunity and other risk factors may also play a role in its progression. Genetic factors may act as a protective or risk factor. ABO blood groups are the most investigated erythrocyte antigen system. The presence or absence of blood group antigens has been associated with various diseases, with antigens also acting as receptors for infectious agents. However, varied literature is documented exploring the relationship between ABO blood group and prevalence of oral and dental diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation of periodontal disease with “ABO” blood groups and Rhesus factor.

A total of 684 systemically healthy subjects who were non smokers were selected by chance. Subjects with known blood group, who had at least 20 teeth, were included in the study and the blood groups were confirmed from their medical records. Based on the periodontal parameters like clinical attachment loss (CAL) and bleeding on probing (BOP) the subjects were divided into three groups: Healthy, gingivitis and periodontitis. The percentage distribution of ABO blood groups and Rhesus factor among the groups was tabulated. Results suggested that, there was an increased prevalence of gingivitis in subjects with blood group ‘A’ and periodontitis in subjects with blood group ‘O’, while subjects with blood group ‘B’ had healthy periodontium. Similarly, there was higher prevalence of gingivitis in Rh positive group. Based on our findings, a significant relationship between blood typing and periodontal disease was determined in this study. Further research into this is indicated.

Author(s) Details

Dr. Varma Siddhartha [BDS, MDS, PGDMLE]
Department of Periodontology, School of Dental Sciences, KIMSDU, India.

Dr. Suragimath Girish [BDS, MDS]
Department of Periodontology, School of Dental Sciences, KIMSDU, India.

Dr. Zope Sameer [BDS, MDS]
Department of Periodontology, School of Dental Sciences, KIMSDU, India.

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Carbon Stocks Potential in Regenerating Trees of the Tropical Coastal Forest Ecosystems | Chapter 02 | Current Perspectives to Environment and Climate Change Vol. 3

Estimation of carbon in the regenerating tropical coastal forest is needed to support conservation and forest monitoring strategies. This chapter presents the determined carbon stocks in regenerating species across forest sites subjected to deforestation because of crop-farming and livestock grazing. The study used thirty-three independent measurements of tree carbon stocks from thirty-three tree families found in the coastal zone of Tanzania. The vegetation was inventoried using a floristic survey of the woody component across intact, crop agriculture and livestock disturbed land-use sites. The biomass was then estimated by employing the existing allometric equations for tropical forests. Thereafter, the above-ground stored carbon was quantified on the sampled tree species found in each land uses. The tree varied (p ≤ .05) in carbon stock across species and land uses. The average carbon (Kg/ha) stored in the regenerated adult trees was 1200 in IFS, 600 in ADS, 400 in LDS. Saplings had 0.43 in LDS, 0.07 in ADS and 0.01 in IFS. Also, seedlings showed an average of 0.41 in IFS, 0.22 in ADS and 0.05 in LDS. It shows that crop-agriculture highly affects the regeneration potential of trees, biomass accumulation and carbon stock than livestock grazing. To restore the carbon storage potential of coastal tropical forests, crop-agriculture must be discouraged, while livestock grazing can be integrated into forest management. Indeed, further studies are required to gauge the integration levels of any anthropogenic activities, so that the natural capacity of coastal tropical forests to regenerate and stock carbon is not comprised further.

Author(s) Details

Dr. Elly Josephat Ligate (Ph.D)
Department of Biosciences, Sokoine University of Agriculture, P.O. Box 3038, Morogoro, Tanzania.

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Melliferous Plants Threatened to Disappearance in Togo | Chapter 02 | Current Research in Agriculture and Horticulture Vol. 1

Melliferous plants are plants whose flowers provide nectar or pollen for honey production to bee colonies. Besides their role in honey production or provision of pollen, some have other uses. Pollinic analysis and apicol surveys conducted between 2009 and 2014 on honey sampled directly in beekeeping areas or outlets have permitted discovery of 330 melliferous species Including 45 species (13.64%) which are threatened to extinction in Togo. Compared with Togolese flora, these plants threatened represent 1.29%.

Belong to 43 genres, these species threatened which are foods plants can be grouped into 24 families and most at risk are the Malvaceae, Anacardiaceae, Fabaceae and Annonaceae.

These plants can be divided into two classes: wild and crops plants. The routinely used parts of these plants are the fruits and leaves. In general, nectar plants are the most represented. From this study, it appears that 45 species of melliferous and alimentary interest were targeted endangered in Togo. These species, which represent approximately 24% of the national melliferous flora, correspond to 43 genres and belong to 24 families. These melliferous families were divided into four groups based according to their composition in endangered plants: the highly threatened families, families moderately threatened, endangered families and families low risk.

Author(s) Details

M. Koudégnan Comlan
Palynology, Algology and Paleoecology Laboratory / Botanic and Ecology Laboratory, Faculty of Sciences, University of Lome, Togo.

Akpavi Sêmihinva
Botanic and Ecology Laboratory, Faculty of Sciences, University of Lome, Togo.

Edorh Thérèse
Palynology, Palynology, Algology and Paleoecology Laboratory, Faculty of Sciences, University of Lome, Togo.

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The Ni(II) Complex of 2-Hydroxy-Pyridine-N-Oxide 2-Isothionate: Synthesis, Characterization, Biological Studies, and X-ray Crystal Structures Using (1) Cu Kα Data and (2) Synchrotron Data | Chapter 09 | New Advances in Materials Science and Engineering Vol. 2

C12H20N6NiO6S2 or NiL2(SCN)2](NH4)2.2H2O, where L is 2-hydroxy-pyridine-N-oxide, has been prepared and characterized using elemental analyses, IR, UV and visible spectrometry, magnetic moment measurements, thermal analyses and single crystal X-ray analyis. The results indicate that the complex reacts as a bidentate ligand and is bound to the metal ion via the two oxygen atoms of the ligand (HL). The activation energies, ∆E*, entropies ∆S*, enthalpies ∆H* and order of reactions have been derived from differential thermo-gravimetric (DTA) curves. Based on inhibition zone diameter measurements, the complex exhibited significant antibacterial activity against both Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. It also exhibited significant antifungal activity against Candida albicans, but no activity was found against Aspergillus flavus. The crystal structure of the Ni(II) complex [C12 H20 N6 Ni O6 S2], Mr = 467.17, was determined from Cu Kα X-ray diffraction data, λ = 1.54178 Å, at 100 K using direct methods. The crystals are monoclinic, space group P21/n with Z = 4 and a = 8.9893(2) Å, b = 17.6680(5) Å, c = 12.5665(3) Å, β = 108.609(1)°. In parallel with this study corresponding results were derived for the crystal structure determined independently from synchrotron X-ray diffraction data, λ = 0.61990 Å, at 100 K. The unit cell parameters derived in this experiment are a = 9.000(2) Å, b = 17.700(4) Å, c = 12.590(3) Å, β = 108.61(3)°. Both studies show 4 O and 2 N atoms coordinating Ni in a distorted octahedral arrangement. Each of the Ni 2-hydroxy-pyridinium-N-oxide moieties is highly planar and the S=C=N-Ni ligands are approximately linear. The crystal structure is characterised by a number of strong hydrogen bonds.

Author(s) Details

Mohamed A. Makhyoun
Department of Chemistry, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt.

Rex A. Palmer
Department of Crystallography, Birkbeck College, London, UK.

Amina A. Soayed
Department of Chemistry, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt.

Heba M. Refaat
Department of Chemistry, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt.

Dina E. Basher
Department of Chemistry, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt.

James Raftery
School of Chemistry, University of Manchester, Manchester, UK.

Carina M. C. Lobley
Diamond Light Source Ltd, Diamond House, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot Oxfordshire, OX11 0DE, UK.

Anna J. Warren
Diamond Light Source Ltd, Diamond House, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot Oxfordshire, OX11 0DE, UK.

Thomas Sorensen
Diamond Light Source Ltd, Diamond House, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot Oxfordshire, OX11 0DE, UK.

Mark Ladd
Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford, UK.

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AC Conductivity Characteristics of Polymer/Metal Oxide Thin Films | Chapter 08 | New Advances in Materials Science and Engineering Vol. 2

Organic/inorganic polymer composite films containing poly (methyl-methacrylate) (PMMA)/ ferric oxide Fe2O3 were prepared following solution casting technique. Dielectric Properties of films has been studied using LCR meter at room temperature 26ºC. Also optical properties have been studied using digital abbey refractometer. The dielectric behavior of films have been studied as a function of concentration, and at lower frequencies over the range 100 Hz-25 KHz, The results elucidate that 70:30 and 50:50 wt% of PMMA/Fe2O3 composite films posses optimal conducting properties due to observed electronic polarisability dip at 40Wt% of Fe2O3.

Author(s) Details

Dr. A. R. Bansod
Acoustical Research Laboratory, Department of Physics, RTM Nagpur University, Nagpur, India.

Dr. O. P. Chimankar
Acoustical Research Laboratory, Department of Physics, RTM Nagpur University, Nagpur, India.

Anita
Department of Physics, Gulbarga University, Gulberga, Karnataka, India.

Basavaraja Sannakki
Department of Physics, Gulbarga University, Gulberga, Karnataka, India.

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Reprocessing Leading to Lower Thermal Conductivity of ZnO Thermoelectrics | Chapter 06 | New Advances in Materials Science and Engineering Vol. 2

Nanometer sized ZnO powder was co-doped with gamma aluminum oxide and gallium oxide and sintered using a direct current sintering furnace. Sintered samples were reprocessed by crushing the samples in a Carver press, then milling for 4 hours. The reprocessed samples were then re-sintered in the direct current sintering furnace. Heat capacity, density and thermal diffusivity were measured in order to determine thermal conductivity as a function of temperature. Thermoelectric properties were measured. It was found that the thermal conductivity decreased from 7 W/m K to 3.5 W/m K at 805K by using the reprocessing technique. It is projected that the value will be less than 2 W/m K and the figure of merit greater than 0.65 at 1400K.

Author(s) Details

D. S. Tucker
EM32, Marshall Space Flight Center, MSFC, Alabama, USA.

A. O’Connor
School of Nuclear Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana, USA.

C. Romnes
Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, Mexico.

C. Hill
EM32, Marshall Space Flight Center, MSFC, Alabama, USA.

X. Zhou
Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Tuscaloosa, Alabama, USA.

G. Thompson
Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Tuscaloosa, Alabama, USA.

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Sampling of Cocoa Beans and Quantification of Ochratoxin A: Validation of the Methods | Chapter 10 | Emerging Issues in Science and Technology Vol. 2

The objectives of this study were compare an alternative method for cocoa beans sampling with the standard method proposed by the European Union (EC 401/2006) and validate a method of Ochratoxin A determination. The alternative method applies to samples of 5 kg of cocoa beans while the standard method applies to samples of 10 kg. quality characteristics and validation parameters were determined according to Ivorian Coffee and Cocoa stock exchange and French (NFV03-110-1998) standards. Concerning quality characteristics, no significant difference at 5% risk was revealed in the values of the three parameters considered when assessing marketability quality requirements (moisture, graining and grades). As regards the validation of OTA determination method, the limits of detections and quantifications were 0.05 µg/kg and 0.20 µg/kg. The coefficients of variation for the tests of repeatability and reproducibility were respectively 0.26% and 5.67%. As for the extraction yield, it was equal to 86%. Furthermore, no significant difference (5% risk) was observed between the concentrations of OTA measured by the standard and alternative methods. Hence, although the alternative method goes with a mass reduction of samples analyzed, it did not alter significantly the results of the marketability as well as the concentrations of OTA.

Author(s) Details

A. Coulibaly
Training and Research Unit of Biological Sciences, Peleforo Gon Coulibaly University, BP 1328 Korhogo, Côte d’Ivoire.

A. Dembele
Central Laboratory of Agrochemistry and Ecotoxicology, LANADA, 04 BP 612 Abidjan 04, Cote d’Ivoire.

K. Bohoussou
Laboratory of Biochemistry and Food Science, UFR Biosciences, Université Felix Houphouet-Boigny, 22 BP 582 Abidjan 22, Cote d’Ivoire.

A. Toure
Department of Environment and Health, Institut Pasteur de Cote d’Ivoire, BP V 34 Abidjan, Cote d’Ivoire.

G. H. Biego
Laboratory of Biochemistry and Food Science, UFR Biosciences, Université Felix Houphouet-Boigny, 22 BP 582 Abidjan 22, Cote d’Ivoire.

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Causes and Strategies for Curbing Market Fire in Nigeria | Chapter 06 | Emerging Issues in Science and Technology Vol. 2

Classification of causes of market fire in Nigeria is a study aimed at identifying and classifying the causes of market fire in Nigeria from the market users’ perspective. The study considered markets with high commercial activities and they were selected from three major cities, namely Lagos, Port Harcourt and Onitsha. Sixty questions on the causes of market fire were designed and distributed to 1074 shop owner/traders (respondents). The factor analysis method was adopted to streamline the questions into six categories and they were ranked. Results showed that the most common cause of market fire in Nigerian is “general storing” and this category attained a commonality ratio of 0.09284. Other causes of fire in markets included electrical installation which ranked second with a commonality ratio of 0.08071. The third to the sixth in that order are, disposal and knowledge of market locations, market exit points, regulations regarding markets and awareness and fire emergency plan. A design plan for an ideal market is provided taking cognizance of the following: ventilation, fire wall and roofs, building in clusters, electrical wiring in conduits, firefighting tools in place, general storage facilities, and dedicated parking area and that for smoking, etc. It is recommended that Government should institute fire professionals to handle design and operation of markets.

Author(s) Details

Nnamdi Ilodiuba
Centre for Occupational Safety, Health and Environment, University of Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria.

Ify L. Nwaogazie
Centre for Occupational Safety, Health and Environment, University of Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria.

John Ugbebor
Centre for Occupational Safety, Health and Environment, University of Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria.

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Setting Regulatory Limits for Sulphur Content in Premium Motor Spirit (PMS) for Degraded Vehicles | Chapter 03 | Emerging Issues in Science and Technology Vol. 2

The need for a cleaner environment free from unhealthy levels of Sulphur IV oxide (SO2) has prompted this study of setting regulatory limits of sulphur content in Premium Motor Spirit (PMS) especially that used in Nigeria. This study has used secondary and primary data to show the extent of damage to the environment, caused by high sulphur content in the PMS we use especially with degraded vehicles. The method adopted for this studyinvolved field monitoring at three number locations (Choba junction, Rumuokoro junction and Alakahia off the East-west road), to obtain meteorological parameters via installed weather stations, traffic count through positioned Close Circuit Television (CCTV) cameras and sampled vehicular exhaust emission of SO2 from randomly selected vehicles. Results showed that vehicles using PMS distributed in Nigeria emits as high as 210.6 mg/m3 and as low as 0.0 mg/m3 SO2 from their exhausts. For the Department of Petroleum Resources (DPR) and the Ministry of Environment (MENv) to achieve its environmental limit of 0.15 mg/m3 ambient level of SO2, they need to reduce the sulphur content limit in PMS supplied to Nigeria to 0.01% weight or restrict the movement of vehicles that emit more than 30.6mg/m3 SO2(degraded vehicles) from their exhausts.

Author(s) Details

Terry Henshaw
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria.

Ify L. Nwaogazie
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria.

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