Review of Edible Plants in Dumpsites: Risks of Heavy Metals Toxicity and Implications for Public Health | Chapter 13 | Advances and Trends in Agricultural Sciences Vol. 3

Studies of dumpsites have revealed that the surrounding soils and water are contaminated with high threshold of heavy metals through anthropogenic inputs. In this review, the uptake and toxicity risks of these heavy metals by habitual edible plants at levels above threshold limit and the implications for public health have been discussed. Edible plants are plants with nutritional and medicinal potentials which can salvage numerous human and animal needs when taken. Edible plants like most other underutilized plants in dumpsites have developed mechanisms which enable them to not only survive but accumulate high level of toxic heavy metals due to high level of environmental metal load in the dumpsites. This ultimately could lead to high human and animal exposure to these toxic elements through food-chain/food-web or direct ingestion of soils. The toxic effects caused by excess concentrations of these heavy metals in living organisms vary considerably and present numerous clinical situations ranging from neurological disorder, cellular damage among others and death in extreme cases. This review suggest the urgent need for policy makers to regulate the use of dumpsites for arable farming and the dependence on edible plants in dumpsites to avert heavy metal poisoning in populations.

Author(s) Details

Nwogo Ajuka Obasi
Environmental Biochemistry, Health and Toxicology Research Unit, Department of Medical Biochemistry, Federal University Ndufu-Alike Ikwo, Nigeria.

Mrs. Stella Eberechukwu Obasi
Department of Science Laboratory Technology, Akanu Ibiam Federal Polytechnic Unwana, Nigeria.

Getrude Obianuju Aloh
Department of Geography and Meteorology, Faculty of Environmental Sciences, Enugu State University of Science and Technology, Enugu State, Nigeria.

Sunday Oge Elom
Environmental Biochemistry, Health and Toxicology Research Unit, Department of Medical Biochemistry, Federal University Ndufu-Alike Ikwo, Nigeria.

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Physiological and Biochemical Responses of Fresh Water Algae, Ankistrodesmus acicularis and Anabaena flos-aquae, to Dichlobenil Exposure | Chapter 12 | Recent Advances in Biological Research Vol. 6

The herbicide dichlobenil is widely used to control unwanted weeds in non-agricultural areas and aquatic environment. When released into environment, it may harm the growth of algae, which in turn might disturb the balance of aquatic ecosystem. Herein, the physiological as well as the biochemical responses of two fresh water algae, namely Ankistrodesmus acicularis (Chlorophyta) and Anabaena flos-aquae (Cyanobacteria), to different concentrations of dichlobenil were assessed. Parameters, including chlorophyll (a) Content, EC50 values, carbohydrate and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) contents as well as the uptake by both algal species were evaluated. We found a significant decrease in chlorophyll (a) content of both algal species to intermediate and high concentration of dichlobenil, whereas stimulative effect was observed for low concentration of dichlobenil on Chl (a) content. Attainable results derived by probit analysis revealed that the EC50 values at 5th and 7th days were approximate to each other for both algal species. Furthermore, a drastic decrease (98%) in ATP content was noticed at 8.0 mg/L dichlobenil treatment in case of Ankistrodesmus acicularis. On the other hand, the activity of Anabaena flos-aquae cells was enhanced by the application of low and intermediate concentrations of dichlobenil (0.25-4.0 mg/L). Notably, higher concentration level (16.0 mg/L) causes substantial decreases in ATP content. Ankistrodesmus acicularis was found to be more sensitive than Anabaena flos-aquae. The uptake of dichlobenil was best fit to a pseudo-first order rate kinetic. The specific uptake rate constants of dichlobenil in case of Ankistrodesmus acicularis were considerably lower than the corresponding rates exhibited by Anabaena flos-aquae. The half- life time for a given concentrations of dichlobenil was at variance for both algal species. Such variation in the uptake rates and half- life time of dichlobenil for both algal species could have some implications on the aquatic ecosystem.

Author(s) Details

Prof. Dr. Azza M. Abd El-Aty
Department of Water Pollution Research, National Research Centre, 33 El Bohouth St., Dokki, Giza 12622, Egypt.

Prof. Dr. Mohammed A. El-Dib
Department of Water Pollution Research, National Research Centre, 33 El Bohouth St., Dokki, Giza 12622, Egypt.

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Toxicity of Dichlorvos (2, 2- Dichlorovinyl Dimethyl Phosphate) on Fish Life | Chapter 07 | Recent Advances in Biological Research Vol. 6

Environmental contaminants are having a major impact on receiving ecosystems including air, soil and surface water. Wastes resulting from human activities mostly end up in surface water through deposition and indirectly through runoff. Indiscriminate application of pesticides and the remains of empty cans are often improperly discharged. This possess a threat to the aquatic system especially amongst communities close to surface water resources. In Nigeria, the use of 2, 2- dichlorovinyl dimethyl phosphate (an organophosphate insecticide) for the control of insects in household settings, agricultural field practice and in storage facilities abounds. 2, 2- dichlorovinyl dimethyl phosphate has different trade names depending on the region. This study reviewed the toxicity associated with 2, 2- dichlorovinyl dimethyl phosphate. The study found that the toxicants induces behavioural and morphological alteration, histopathological, haematological, biochemical, enzymatic, electrolytes and developmental defects and death depending on the concentration and exposure duration. The study also found that insecticides containing 2, 2- dichlorovinyl dimethyl phosphate is toxic to fish even at low concentrations (0.2 – 2 ppm). Hence, there is the need to exercise caution in the use and disposal of empty cans of 2, 2- dichlorovinyl dimethyl phosphate close to surface water.

Author(s) Details

Dr. Sylvester Chibueze Izah
Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, Bayelsa Medical University, Yenagoa, Bayelsa State, Nigeria.

Dr. Glory Richard
Department of Community Medicine, Faculty of Clinical Sciences, Niger Delta University, Wilberforce Island, Bayelsa State, Nigeria.

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Toxicity Studies of the Extracts of Parkia biglobosa Stem Bark in Rats | Chapter 8 | Modern Advances in Pharmaceutical Research Vol. 1

Extracts of Parkia biglobosa stem bark is used in Nigerian traditional medicine (NTM) to treat malaria, diarrhea and pains. To establish the toxicity profile of the medicine such parameters as the lethal dose (LD50) as well as effects on body functions and organs were evaluated in albino Wistar rats. The bioactive constituents of the water and methanol extracts were also evaluated as a link to toxicity. The LD50 was greater than 5000mg/kg per oral (p.o) for both extracts.  No significant (P< 0.05) changes in body weights and vital organs of treated animals. However, at 5000mg/kg of water extract, a significant  increase  in  relative  weight  of  the  kidneys  and  hyper -cholesterolemic  effects  were observed. The extract also elicited significant increase in blood glucose level. The kidneys and livers of animals treated with P. biglobosa water extract for 14 days revealed histopathological evidence of pathological lesions. The methanol extract did not show any changes in the levels of hepatic and hematological  parameters, histopathological evidence of  pathological lesions, and  serum level of urea, uric acid, bilirubin,  creatinine and total protein concentrations. Treatment elicited hypo -cholesterolemic effects and significant reduction in blood glucose level occurred in all the groups. The phytochemical screening revealed the presence of tannins, flavonoids, saponins, terpenes, cardiac glycosides, phenols  and reducing  sugars  in the  methanol extract,  the water  extract  showed the presence of similar constituents with the absence of flavonoids and cardiac glycosides. This study has shown the toxicity characteristics of the methanol and water extracts of the stem bark P. biglobosa in short time treatment with the extracts. This study has shown the diversity in toxicity as well as the chemical constituent of the stem barks of P. biglobosa in relation to the extraction solvent. However this study provides the basis for further study on the detailed toxic and pharmacological effects of the extracts of P. biglobosa stem bark and their active component(s).

Author(s) Details

Modupe Iretiola Builders
Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Bingham University, Karu, Nigeria.

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View Volume: https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/mapr/v1