Traditional Cautery: A Narrative Review on Modern Cauteries through Old Window | Chapter 15 | Emerging Research in Medical Sciences Vol. 2

Background: Traditional cautery is a well-known healing practice used in many diseases in diverse cultures of the world since ancient times. Traditional healers, practitioners and professionals continuously improved several structural and procedural perspectives of this practice over centuries. However, numerous modern cauteries and related devices used in modern surgery began to be developed by Bovie and Harvey in late 19th century.

Objective: This critical review describes briefly modern cauteries (new lights) used in modern surgery that work on the same principles of traditional cautery (old window).

Methods: E-searches of relevant data (2000-2019) published in PubMed, MEDLINE, Google Scholar, ScienceDirect and OvidSP databases were made using the Boolean operators and keywords. Finally, 91 articles were retained for this narrative review.

Results: Several important components of traditional cautery were progressively developed and improved by traditional healers and professionals and this developmental process continued in modern surgery since 1988. Heating of traditional cautery by fire was replaced by electric current in innumerable modern cautery devices that generate variable energy power density for effectively destroying diseased tissue together with other related functions with minor adverse effects and complications.

Conclusion: Although electrocautery and electrosurgery units with wider applications in medical and other sciences use electric current in different ways to produce energy for cutting and removing the intended unwanted tissue in modern surgical settings around the world, traditional cautery mother of modern cauteries is still used by healers mainly in the eastern world. Both are associated with adverse effects and complications, and this perspective is calling for future research to rectify the associated technical snags in modern surgery.

Author(s) Details

Naseem Akhtar Qureshi, MD, PhD
National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine, Ministry of Health, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

Hamoud A. Alsubaie
National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine, Ministry of Health, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

Gazzaffi I. M. Ali
National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine, Ministry of Health, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

Saud M. Alsanad
College of Medicine, Imam Muhammad Ibn Saud Islamic University (IMSIU), Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

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The Influence of Tradition over the Community of Faith: An Old Testament Perspective | Chapter 01 | Current Research in Education and Social Studies Vol. 1

In this article, (The Influence of Tradition over the Community of Faith: a Biblical Perspective), the author tries to understand the way the religious tradition influences the community of faith. The importance of the subject is demonstrated by the impact which a tradition has upon a certain community. The consequences can be serious. As far as the consequences for the Jewish community in history, it is showed that, even though they had lost their country many times, they miraculously preserved their identity. The author argues that tradition kept the community on track, by preserving some customs, practices that have been passed on from generation to generation. The main responsibility for this was given to the leaders of the community: the kings, the priests, and the prophets. When the leaders abandoned the Yahwist tradition, the community lost its identity. Another role of the tradition in relationship to the community is to educate the community. The Old Testament presents situations in which the geographical territory – the Land of Israel, reacted against the Jewish community in order to motivate it to keep the tradition. Two kinds of reactions of the land are presented against the community: The land had the power of driving out the Jews from their country, and the land can exercise pressure upon the community while the community was living into the land, in order to correct its attitude towards the tradition. We have the case of the Samaritan community, who did not keep the tradition of the land and experienced difficulties. As far as the attitude of the New Testament towards other communities living in the land, it was given the example of Jesus who had a favorable attitude towards Samaritans.  In some instances Jesus recommends some Samaritans as models to be followed by Jews. Even Jesus himself is identified in Christianity as being the Good Samaritan.

Author(s) Details

Mihai Handaric

Department of Pentecostal Theology, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, “Aurel Vlaicu” University of Arad, Romania.

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History of Cautery: The Impact of Ancient Cultures | Chapter 07 | New Insights into Disease and Pathogen Research Vol. 2

Background: Healers around the world successfully practice traditional cautery (in Arabic kaiy) since ancient times. Traditional cautery, centuries of medical practice with unidentified exact origin has survived till today that authenticates its significance and effectiveness in mitigating human sufferings and diseases.

Objective: This overview aimed to describe and synthesise the literature on historical perspectives of traditional cautery.

Methods: The relevant literature published in English prior to 2018 was electronically searched in databases (PubMed, MEDLINE, Google Scholar, and OvidSP) using the Boolean operators and keywords. Manual searches and references of published articles and books were also conducted. A number of pertinent articles and abstracts (N=7490) were retained for extensive appraisal by two independent reviewers, and finally, 82 articles were included in this paper.

Results: The historical practice of traditional cautery is documented in diverse ancient cultures but the earliest references found in Surgical Papyrus (1550BC). The inconsistent data evidenced the origin of cautery, definitions, instruments, anatomical sites and techniques, advancements and research in traditional cautery since antiquity. Cautery was diminished in early 1800 century but revived in late 1800-1900 AD in the world. Presently, traditional cautery with better procedures and aseptic means is used by healers for treatment of a variety of diseases around the Eastern and Western world.

Conclusion: Traditional cautery has a checkered history and is a complementary modality for managing difficult-to-treat medical and surgical conditions. Scientifically more advanced modern types of cautery are used in the treatment of a variety of diseases across the world. This study calls for researching elucidating the underlying mechanisms of actions and effects of traditional cautery. Cautery is an ancient traditional therapy practised by healers across the globe since ancient times. Traditional cautery has checkered history, but most practitioners from diverse cultures of the world successfully practised it in the mitigation of human sufferings and diseases. Despite technological advancements in cauterisation techniques in modern medical sciences, traditional ancient cautery is survived due to a variety of strong socio-cultural beliefs and progressive safe application in selected patients not at risk of developing any complication. This historical overview calls for future studies to provide evidence-based data concerning the sociocultural factors, clinical perspectives and basic underlying mechanisms of action and effects of traditional cautery in different diseases.

Author(s) Details

Naseem A. Qureshi
National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine, Ministry of Health, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

Saud M. Alsanad
College of Medicine, Imam Muhammad Ibn Saud Islamic University (IMSIU), Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

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View Volume: https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/nidpr/v2