Infection and Foot Care in Diabetics Seeking Treatment in a Tertiary Care Hospital, Bhubaneswar, Odisha State, India | Chapter 15 | Current Trends in Disease and Health Vol. 3

Diabetes mellitus is a major public health problem that can cause a number of serious complications. Foot ulceration is one of its most common complications. Poor foot care knowledge and practices are important risk factors for foot problems among diabetics. The present study was undertaken in the diabetes outpatient department of a tertiary care hospital to assess the practices regarding foot care in diabetes, find out the determinants of foot ulcer in diabetics, and offer suggestions to improve care. After informed consent, a total of 124 diabetics were interviewed to collect all relevant information. The diabetic foot care practice responses were converted into scores and for the sake of analysis were inferred as poor (0–5), fair (6-7) and good (>7) practices. Of the study population, 68.5% (85/124) consisted of men. The disease was diagnosed within the last 5 years for 66% (81/124) of the study participants. Of the study subjects, 83% (103/124) were on oral hypoglycemic agents (OHAs), 15.3% (19) on insulin and 2 on diet control only. Among them about 18.5% had a history of foot ulcer. 37.9% reported using special slippers, 12% diabetics used slippers indoors and 66.9% used slippers while using toilet. Of the study subjects, 67.8% said that feet should be inspected daily. 27.4% said they regularly applied oil/moisturizer on their feet. There is a need on part of the primary or secondary physician and an active participation of the patient to receive education about foot care as well as awareness regarding risk factors, recognition, clinical evaluation and thus prevention of the complications of diabetes.

Author(s) Details

Sonali Kar

Department of Community Medicine, Kalinga Institute of Medical Sciences, KIIT University, Patia, Bhubaneswar 751024, India.

Shalini Ray

Kalinga Institute of Medical Sciences, KIIT University, Patia, Bhubaneswar 751024, India.

Dayanidhi Mehe

Department of Medicine, Kalinga Institute of Medical Sciences, KIIT University, Patia, Bhubaneswar 751024, India.

View Book –


Biotreatment of Crude Oil Contaminated Soil | Chapter 12 | Theory and Applications of Microbiology and Biotechnology Vol. 1

Biodegradation of hydrocarbons by microorganisms represents one of the primary mechanisms by which petroleum and other hydrogen pollutants are eliminated from the environment. This work was carried out on the effect of microorganisms on the biotreatment of oil in crude oil contaminated soil.

Microorganisms were isolated from two experimental soil samples contaminated with Bonny Crude and normal uncontaminated soil as a control over a period of seven months. The microbial as well as the physico-chemical parameters of the soil samples were all analyzed using standard methods. Changes in total petroleum hydrocarbon level were measured appropriately. Treatments used were the microbial isolates.

Forty-four microorganisms were isolated from the contaminated soils and identified as species of Pseudomonas (7), Flavobacterium (6), Bacillus (8), Proteus (4), Klebsiella (1), Pencillium (5), Aspergillus (7), Fusarium (3), Trichypton (2) and Neurospora (1). Ten of the forty-four isolates had ability to degrade crude oil in the laboratory. On contamination a value of 1.0X105 cfu/g in microbial counts were obtained followed by a subsequent increase in population levels after a period of 2months with a value of 1.0X106 cfu/g. Oil application to the soil resulted in an increase in total petroleum hydrocarbon from 0.31 ppm to 5.53 ppm; organic matter from 0.41% to 7.34%; available phosphorus from 1.75 ppm to 2.84 ppm. The treatment measures all showed progressive decrease in oil concentration in the soil. Mixture of bacterial and fungal isolates as a treatment measure proved to be more favourable above all others, it brought the concentration from 5.53 ppm to 0.31 ppm after a period of 5 weeks of treatment, which is same value with the normal soil (uncontaminated).

Species of Pseudomonas, Bacillus, Flavobacterium, Proteus, Klebsiella, Penicillium, Aspergillus, Fusarium, Trichyphyton and Neurospora had potential for the degradation of bonny crude oil. They could therefore be employed in environmental cleanup of petroleum spill site.

Author(s) Details

B. M. Popoola
Ajayi Crowther University, Oyo, Oyo State, Nigeria.

A. A. Olanbiwonninu
Ajayi Crowther University, Oyo, Oyo State, Nigeria.

View Books: