Crop by-products and Residues Availability and Utilization as Feed Resources for Small Ruminant Production Systems in Khana Local Government Area, Rivers State, Nigeria | Chapter 11 | Emerging Issues and Development in Economics and Trade Vol.4

In Nigeria the most difficult problem in ruminant feeding is the scarcity of energy and protein feedstuffs during the dry season. There is also competition between ruminant species with humans for the utilization of cereals. This can be resolved by utilizing crop or agricultural by-products to ameliorate feed deficit problems. This article reviewed the state of availability and utilization of crop by-products as livestock feeds for small ruminants in Khana Local Government Area of Rivers State, Nigeria. It was revealed that the predominant crop by-products in order of availability and utilization as livestock feeds were cassava peels, yam peels, sweet potato peels, plantain peels, banana peels, cocoyam peels, maize sievate and fried garrisievate. Their use is highly recommended because of their ready availability, cheapness and acceptability that can help to solve the problems of food deficits for small ruminants in the area. Factors that will limit their use are: availability in terms of time, location, seasonality and storage, high cost of their handling and transportation from the production site to the farm, their high moisture contents that causes storage problems, mould growth such as aflatoxin which may cause toxicity and the presence of anti-nutritional factors. Despite these shortcomings they can be seen as possible options to solve the problems of feed scarcity in traditional sheep and goat farming systems.

Author(s) Details

G. A. Kalio
Department of Agricultural Science, Ignatius Ajuru University of Education, Ndele Campus, P.M.B. 5047, Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

Dr B. B. Okafor
Department of Agricultural Science, Ignatius Ajuru University of Education, Ndele Campus, P.M.B. 5047, Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

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Utilization and Factors Associated with Uptake of Prevention of Mother- to – Child Transmission (PMTCT) of HIV Services among Antenatal Clinic Attendees at a Tertiary Health Facility in Akure, Ondo State | Chapter 2 | Current Trends in Disease and Health Vol. 3

Background: Prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) programmes provide antiretroviral treatment to HIV-positive pregnant women to reduce the likelihood of their infants acquiring the HIV. However despite concerted efforts to scale-up PMTCT services in Nigeria, the coverage and uptake of the service by pregnant women remain low.  

Aim/Objective: This study was carried out to assess the utilization and factors associated with the uptake of PMTCT Services among pregnant women at a tertiary health facility in Akure, Ondo State.

Methodology: This research was an institutional based descriptive cross-sectional study conducted over a period of one month (May 2018). The study population included pregnant women accessing antenatal care at the University of Medical Sciences Teaching Hospital, Akure, Ondo State. Data was collected using interviewer administered questionnaire and analyzed using SPSS Windows 20. The main outcome measured was the utilization of PMTCT services. Factors associated with its utilization was assessed using binary logistic regression. Statistical significance was set at P<0.05.

Results: A total of 400 pregnant women were interviewed with 100% response rate. The mean age of the women was 32 years ± 4.8. The majority of them with their spouses were educated up to the tertiary level. Their mean gestational age was 28 weeks ± 2.2 standard deviation. Among the respondents, 252 (63.2%) had been tested for HIV in the index pregnancy while 148 (36.8%) were not yet tested, those not tested identified lack of counsellors as their main reason. The average time spent before the patients were seen at the clinic was reported to be too long in 287 (71.7%), so 368 (92.5%) of the women were not satisfied with the service. Factors found to be positively associated with PMTCT utilization were the educational level of the women and their partners which could be in favour of their utilizing PMTCT services and inadequate counsellors which may not be in favour of utilization of the service.

Conclusion: All the respondents did not utilize the PMTCT services in the index pregnancy and the main reason being inadequate number of counsellors. There is the need to improve the quality of PMTCT services in the study setting.

Author Details

Dr. (Mrs.) Theresa Azonima Irinyenikan

Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Medical Sciences / University of Medical Sciences Teaching Hospital, Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria.

View Book: http://bp.bookpi.org/index.php/bpi/catalog/book/148