Kerosene: A Study of Tissue Histology and Serum Vitamin and Heavy Metal Levels of Female Wistar Rats Chronically Exposed | Chapter 07 | Advances and Trends in Biotechnology and Genetics Vol. 2

Background: Kerosene a commonly available product used for a variety of purposes in many parts of Asia and Africa is sometimes sold in beverage bottles and jerry cans in both commercial and residential places due to inadequate number of filling stations. Therefore excessive exposure through both dermal and oral routes is common.

Objective: This study was embarked upon to ascertain the impact of trace amount of kerosene on tissue histology as well as serum vitamin and heavy metal levels in female Wistar rats.

Methods: Kerosene (0.4 mL/kg body weight) was administered to rats either through the oral or dermal route daily for a period of 30 days. The effects of kerosene administration on tissue histology; serum vitamin levels and serum concentrations of heavy metals were evaluated using hematoxylin- eosin staining technique; high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC); and atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) respectively. Student’s t test and analysis of variance were used for statistical analysis of data. P <0.05 was considered significant.

Results: Histopathologic presentation such as pulmonary congestion, severely stunted villi, congestion of coronary vessels, and diffuse spongiosis of the cerebral cortex were observed in kerosene administered groups while control group featured no visible lesion. Results of heavy metals revealed that although As, Al and Cd were not significantly different in kerosene exposed groups compared with control, Si was significantly lower (oral), and significantly higer (dermal) compared with control. In addition, using analysis of variance (ANOVA) all estimated vitamins (except pantothenic acid) were significantly different in kerosene exposed groups compared with control.  

Conclusion: The results of this study indicate that exposure to this product either through the oral or dermal route may be detrimental to health as it induced adverse alteration in vitamin and heavy metal levels as well as distorted tissue histo-architecture.

Author(s) Details

Ayobola A. Iyanda
Department of Chemical Pathology, College of Health Sciences, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Osogbo, Nigeria.

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Health Benefits of Fruits and Vegetables in Liberian Cuisine | Book Publisher International

Background: Sufficient consumption of fruits and vegetables, as recommended by the World Health Organization and Food and Agriculture of the United Nations, has been greatly linked with a lowered risk of chronic/lifestyle diseases, digestive problems, mental health problems, eye problems, high blood pressure and body weight management. It is recommended for adults to eat at least five servings of fruits and vegetables per day. Unfortunately, most Liberians do not follow such a healthy dietary pattern. Be it as it may, this book focuses on the health benefits of fruits and vegetables in Liberian cuisine.

Methods: For this narrative review, appropriate scientific articles were considered from mainly Google Scholar using the keywords health benefits, fruits, vegetables, Liberian cuisine, vitamins and minerals. An observational study was also conducted using mini nutrition assessment tool and descriptive analysis.

Results: In spite of the protective effects of fruits and vegetables as suggested by existing data, most Liberians still consume low amounts of them. This is evident by the observational study conducted and the information gathered from secondary data sources. It is important to deploy health education strategies to promote fruit and vegetable consumption among Liberians.

Conclusion: It is obvious that the eating patterns of most Liberians are unhealthy. The risks involved by not including fruits and vegetables into the daily meals of Liberians are fatal and could cause damages to several organs. Realizing the fact that medical bills for treating lifestyle or chronic diseases are far more expensive than practically handling those risk factors that contribute to their emergence, it is fair enough for all Liberians to make great use of the fruits and vegetables they consume on a seasonal basis.

Author(s) Details

Forkpah Pewee
University of Liberia, Fendell Campus, Monrovia, Liberia.

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