Reduction of Metal Ion Species Associated With Pathological Conditions by Utilizing Potassium Ferrate (K2FeO4) Treatment | Chapter 03 | Current Perspectives to Environment and Climate Change Vol. 1

Aims: To demonstrate that potassium ferrate will remove potentially toxic metal ions from contaminated water samples.

Study Design: A known amount of metal ions were solubilized in aqueous solution, then exposed to potassium ferrate in known amounts. Extent of removal was monitored by ion chromatography and visible spectroscopy.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Chemistry, Durham Science Center, 6001 Dodge Street, Omaha Nebraska 68182 USA.

Methodology: Known amounts of iron (II), manganese (II), copper (II), and calcium were solubilized in aqueous solution to known molarity. These mixtures were treated by utilizing potassium ferrate in known amounts. The presence of metal ions was monitored by ion chromatography and/or visible spectroscopy before and after treatment with potassium ferrate. Potassium ferrate was present with metallic ions for 24 hours at 21ºC.

Results: Metal ions were placed in aqueous solution, iron (II) as Fe(NH4)2(SO4)2, copper (II) as CuCl2•2H2O, manganese (II) as MnCl2•4H2O, and magnesium (II) as magnesium chloride, calcium as calcium chloride. Potassium ferrate treatment did not remove chloride (Cl-), ammonium (NH4+), and sulfate (SO42-). The cation calcium was decreased by 84.0%, magnesium was decreased by 42.5%, copper (II) was removed by 100%, iron (II) by 48.7%.

Reduction of calcium, magnesium, copper, and iron (II) was monitored by ion chromatography. Reduction of iron (II), manganese, and copper (II) was monitored by visible spectroscopy. Substantial reduction of metallic ions was found in all tests after a 24 hour period at 21ºC.

Conclusion: These metals have been associated with oxidative stress, damage to mental and central nervous system function. Potassium ferrate is shown to be efficient in removing many of these potentially harmful ions. Visible spectroscopy and ion chromatography is shown to be effective in monitoring the reduction of metallic ions during investigations or potassium ferrate treatment of contaminated water.

Author(s) Details

Dr. Ronald Bartzatt
University of Nebraska, Durham Science Center, 6001 Dodge Street, Omaha, Nebraska 68182, USA.

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Surface Water Nitrogen Load Due to Food Production-Supply System in South Asian Megacities: A Model-based Estimation | Chapter 13 | Advances and Trends in Agricultural Sciences Vol. 1

Food production and supply system contributed more than 90% of the nitrogen originated in south Asian megacities that pollute the surface water. Five megacities of three South Asian countries were considered in this study. These countries are developing and their population is increasing tremendously. All the five megacities are very densely urbanized. A numerical model has been used to calculate the anthropogenic nitrogen load on the environment. FAO statistics on fertilizer consumption and food balance data sheet has been used to calculate the nitrogen load. Human waste plays the vital role in nitrogen production of south Asian megacities. So, in these contexts the nitrogen load for all the study areas extremely harmful for environment and ever increasing population also increased the load of nitrogen on surface water produced from human waste which also very awful for the environment. So, a proper sewage treatment facility is compulsory for all the study areas.  Four findings has been identified are; (1) for all three countries, rice and wheat production-supply produce the maximum amount of nitrogen. (2) Though the amount of nitrogen due to fertilizer input more or less same among the countries but amount of produced nitrogen due to human waste is huge in Bangladesh. (3) Moreover, in city scale, the amount of nitrogen due to fertilizer input is maximum in Delhi city and negligible in Kolkata due to an insignificant amount of farmland. (4) Interestingly, the maximum amount of nitrogen load in surface water is in Kolkata city due to human waste but Mumbai and Dhaka shows a medium amount of nitrogen load. This can give the estimation for city wise untreated nitrate content and this is necessary for the capacity development of existing sewerage treatment plant as well as the establishment of new plants.

Author  Details:

Syeda Jesmin Haque

Graduate School of Integrated Arts and Science, Hiroshima University, Japan and Assistant Director, Geological Survey of Bangladesh, Room#415, 153 Pioneer Road, Segunbagicha, Dhaka-1000, Bangladesh.

Prof. Dr. Shin-ichi Onodera

Graduate School of Integrated Arts and Sciences, Hiroshima University, Japan.

Dr. Yuta Shimizu

Graduate School of Integrated Arts and Science, Hiroshima University, Japan.

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