Folk Beliefs of Vietnamese People | Book Publisher International

Vietnam has been being a country with many religions and beliefs. In the diversity of religions and beliefs, there are religions and beliefs imported from abroad, but there are also beliefs and religions that were born righteously in the country of Vietnam. In those beliefs, there have been folk beliefs. Folk beliefs have been formed in daily life and the process of the productive labor of people, over many generations of Vietnamese people. It (folk beliefs) has become an indispensable spiritual activity of the working people. Within the scope of the book, in addition to chapter 1: An overview of Vietnam’s religions and beliefs, the remaining four chapters focus on analyzing four typical folk beliefs, namely: The ancestor worship belief, the Mother Goddess worship belief, the Village’s Tutelary god worship belief and the soul worship belief.

Author (s) Details

Vu Hong Van
University of Transport and Communications / University of Natural Resources and Environment, Vietnam.

Nguyen Trong Long
University of Transport and Communications / University of Natural Resources and Environment, Vietnam.

Trinh Thi Thanh
University of Transport and Communications / University of Natural Resources and Environment, Vietnam.

Tong Kim Dong
University of Transport and Communications / University of Natural Resources and Environment, Vietnam.

Pham Van Luong
University of Transport and Communications / University of Natural Resources and Environment, Vietnam.

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Novel Discoveries in Atmospheric Physics | Book PI International

Climate change is currently an eminent theme in politics. Thereby, so-called greenhouse gases such as CO2 are considered as the real cause for the temperature rise of the global atmosphere. This theory traces back to measurements of Tyndall at the end of the 19th century which revealed that CO2 absorbs thermal radiation, in contrast to N2 and O2, the main components of the air, which do not absorb. Subsequently, Arrhenius tried to theoretically implement the Stefan-Boltzmann law, which meanwhile became known, assuming that the atmosphere is warmed up by the black-body radiation of the Earth surface, but solely due to the CO2 and to similar IR (infrared) absorbing greenhouse gases such as CH4. This means: The atmosphere would not be warmed up if no CO2 or other greenhouse gases were there. Thus the temperature of the atmosphere would be identical with the temperature of the absolute zero. After the Second World War, this approach was continued by Plass and others, based on IR- spectroscopic, and regarding an extra-terrestrial albedo or solar reflection coefficient. 

However, such an extra-terrestrial reflection coefficient for solar light, which implicates a viewpoint outside of the atmosphere, cannot be exactly defined since various effects are occurring within the atmosphere, for instance turbulences by winds. They cannot be expressed by a simple coefficient given by the ratio between emitted light and incident light. Moreover, by means of the usual determination methods, applying radiative field measurements, no reliable values for the terrestrial albedo were available, since the incident sunlight is independent of the distance to the surface, whereas the emitted light depends on the distance.

In contrast, the method developed by the author and described in the first enclosed article entitled »The solar-reflective characterization of solid opaque materials« enables the direct determination of the – colour dependent – solar absorption coefficient, thus of the complement of the solar reflection coefficient. This determination is feasible with a lab-like method by measuring the temperature increases of well-characterized plates, preferably from aluminium, during a permanent solar irradiation period. Since any solid plate emits thermal radiation when its temperature is increasing, a constant limiting temperature is reached when the intensity of the emitted radiation is identically equal to the intensity of the emitted radiation. Since this limiting temperature could not be achieved within the measuring period of 30 minutes when 20 mm thick aluminium plates were used, due to their high heat capacity, separate cooling down measurements were made in a darkened room, which enabled a mathematical modelling of the whole process and a determination of the – colour dependent – limiting temperatures. Besides the evaluation of the colour-specific solar absorption coefficients, this method also enables studying the influence of other factors affecting the warming up process, such as the heat capacity of the plates or the convection of the air.

A second, even graver flaw in conventional atmospheric physics arises from the fact that, with regard to the interactions between infrared light and gases, solely the light absorption was measured, but never the warming-up that is the temperature rise of irradiated gases. For the usual IR-spectroscopic application, whereby specific bonds in organic molecules can be identified, those features are not relevant. However, in this case where the temperature represents the relevant parameter, it should have been a peculiar requirement to gather empirical facts in order to ascertain the theoretical assumptions. But incredibly enough, this has never been done so far. Hence it was the subject of the author’s further work, described in the second enclosed article entitled »The thermal behaviour ofgases under the influence of infrared-radiation«, and delivering surprising results which entirely contradicted the former conventional perception.

The particular difficulty at this measuring problem arises from the very low heat capacity of gases, which runs the risk that the measurement results are interfered by the measuring vessel ore tube. Moreover, the walls of the vessel or tube may directly be warmed up by the (IR) light, which has to be used for the irradiation of the gas, indirectly influencing the gas temperature. This problem could be widely solved by using quadratic (25 cm x 25 cm) 1 m long tubes from Styrofoam which were mirrored with thin aluminium foils and covered by thin transparent plastic foils on both ends. The temperatures were measured at three different positions with mirrored Hg-thermometers. Besides sunlight, mainly IR-spots were used as radiation sources. However, in the latter case an inherent intensity loss along the tube could not be eliminated but solely minimized.

Such a simple apparatus may appear unprofessional and not suited for modern research work. However, it is indeed adequate to the problem, although it necessitates only simple materials which are partly available in do-it-yourself shops. But these materials were not available at the time when the pioneer work was done, whereas the professional IR-spectrometers are not suited for this measuring problem since they were constructed for another, analytical purpose. Besides, one should be aware that many trials were needed in order to optimize the apparatus and to obtain reliable results, and that the measurements required considerable skill.

Surprisingly, these results revealed that all gases absorb infrared radiation, even noble gases. Thereby they are warmed up to a limiting temperature where the intensity of the absorbed radiation was identically equal to the intensity of the emitted radiation by the gas. Moreover, air (or a 4:1 N2/O2 mixture) and pure carbon-dioxide were warmed up to a nearly equal extent. Solely in the line Argon – Neon – Helium significant differences appeared. Applying the kinetic gas theory, the radiation intensity of the emitted light turned out to be proportional to the collision frequency of the particles (atoms or molecules). When the particle size of different gases is unchanged, the collision frequency is proportional to the gas pressure and to the square root of its absolute temperature. Comparing the results obtained under sunlight with those obtained with artificial light, and applying Planck’s temperaturedependent radiative distribution law, the effective wave length was roughly estimated at 1,9 μm.

This behaviour can be explained by the occurrence of an internal energy of the molecules or atoms, which is due to vibrations of the atom nuclei or of the electron shells, and which is induced by the applied IR-radiation. That kind of energy is not identical with the apparent heat of the gas which is measurable with a thermometer, and which is due to the kinetic translation energy of the entire atoms or molecules. Thus, when the particles are in an excited vibrational state, induced by thermal radiation, solely a part of this internal energy is transformed into apparent heat, induced via collisions, whereas another part is emitted as radiation, without having achieved a change of apparent heat. Contrariwise, warming up of a gas leads to acceleration of the particles, and via collisions to enhanced internal vibrations enabling thermal radiation.

Obviously, in this case the amount of absorbed IR-radiation is so low that it cannot be detected with a conventional IR-spectrometer. However, it is high enough to induce a measurable temperature increase. On the other hand, the absorption values obtained with IR-spectroscopic methods appear to be irrelevant for a temperature enhancement, since that kind of adsorption may possibly lead to internal vibrations which cannot be readily converted to apparent heat but rather to a radiation emission.

As a consequence of the theoretical finding that the thermal radiation of a gas was proportional to the pressure, one could assume that the atmosphere emits thermal radiation in both directions, namely towards Space as well towards the Earth surface, and that the intensity of the atmosphere radiation at the Earth surface was proportional to the atmospheric pressure and to the square root of the absolute temperature of the atmosphere at the Earth surface. Thus in the case of a steady equilibrium state the intensity of the black-body radiation of the Earth surface – or of a particular section of it – must be equal to the intensity of the thermal atmospheric radiation which may be called counter-radiation. This approach is similar to the approach of the Stefan-Boltzmann relation. However, it is more expressive since it comprises the pressure as a predominant parameter, whereas in the Stefan-Boltzmann relation solely the absolute temperature appears (in the fourth power). Thereby no information is given as to how this temperature is achieved.

 Thus, in the third enclosed article entitled »The Thermal Radiation of the Atmosphere and its Role in the so-called Greenhouse Effect« it stood to reason to validate this approach by empirical evidence, (1) by using the method described in the first article where coloured aluminium plates were exposed to sunlight, and (2) by varying the atmospheric pressure by means of varying the sea level of the measurement station. Thereby, the steady states at the limiting temperatures were needed where the intensity of the emitted thermal radiation of the plates is equal to the intensity of the counterradiation of the atmosphere. In order to get the real limiting temperatures (and not the computed ones), thinner aluminium plates were used (8 mm thick, instead of the original 20 mm ones) which entailed shorter measurement periods.

In order to get optimal results, it would be necessary to solely vary the atmospheric pressure whereas the other parameters (atmospheric temperature and intensity of the sunlight) should be invariant. However, in reality this condition can inherently not be fulfilled since the variation of the sea level of the measuring station implicates a variation of the temperature of the ambient atmosphere as well of the intensity and the character of the sunlight. Thereby, at higher sea levels the atmospheric temperature decreases whereas the intensity of the sunlight increases. Nevertheless, acceptable results were obtained with four differently coloured plates (white, blue, green and black) at the two measuring stations in Switzerland Glattbrugg (430 m above sea level, approx. 0.948 bar atmospheric pressure) and Furka-Pass (2430 m above sea level, approx. 0.738 bar atmospheric pressure), yielding a so-called atmospheric emission constant A of approx. 22 Wm-2bar-1K-0.5. As a consequence, it can be stated that the counter radiation of the atmosphere indeed contributes to the climate, but as a whole and insofar as the atmospheric temperature decreases at higher sea levels. Thereby the trace gas is insignificant. Furthermore, it can be supposed that the mean temperature of the Earth surface would decrease when, as a result of a reduced assimilation of plants, the oxygen-content of the atmosphere and therefore the atmospheric pressure would generally decrease since the nitrogen-content can be assumed to be constant. This may possibly explain – or at least partly – climate changes during earlier palaeontology aeons. But in particular, it reveals the important role of nitrogen in the atmosphere, which does not only reduce the chemical aggressiveness of oxygen, but, due to the thereby enhanced atmospheric pressure, it also enables an overall convenient climate, which is prerequisite for life on this earth.

Author (s) Details

Thomas Allmendinger
Independent Scholar, ETH (Swiss Federal Institute of Technology), Zurich, Switzerland.

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Review ofa Case of Coexisting KRAS and BRAF Mutations in a Patient with Metastatic Colon Adenocarcinoma | Chapter 17 | Innovations in Medicine and Medical Research Vol.2

KRAS and BRAF mutations are found in 30-50% and 10% of metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) patients respectively. Here we report a unique case of mCRC with coexistent KRAS and BRAF mutations. Patients harboring concomitant KRAS and BRAF mutations do not usually respond to standard chemotherapeutic regimens, usually have aggressive course of illness with poor prognosis and we are in dire need of developing new treatment strategies.

Author(s)Details

Anusha Vittal
Liver Diseases Branch, NIDDK, NIH, Bethesda, MD, The University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, Kansas, USA.  

Anup Kasi,
Division of Medical Oncology, The University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, Kansas, USA.

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TLP Sequenced and Studied for Its Functions with Targets Diagnostic and Therapeutic: Recent Perspective | Chapter 16 | Innovations in Medicine and Medical Research Vol.2

From the first analysis of immuneprecipitation followed by Western Blotting (WB) Corin and TLP seem to precipitate at the same height (approximately 50 KDa) and are recognized by the same antibodies. In parallel the tests of immunoprecipitation by the use of cell extracts derived from lung cancer cells A549 and NCI-H23 are improved with the aim to be able of obtaining a precipitate containing only the TLP. In fact the partial aminoacid sequence of TLP showes a high homology with the sequence of human Corin (only one aminoacid is different) and is present in lung cancer under different isoforms. It is known that human Corin is expressed mostly outside the cells and the protein extract derived from the extracellular medium and from the cells transfected with the plasmid, which overexpresses Corin, showes many more bands analyzed on SDS-PAGE that are equivalent to the bands (about 50-100 KDa) observed in the WB analyzed with anti-TLP. 

Author(s) Details

Giulio Tarro
Beaumont Bonelli Foundation for Cancer Research, Naples, Italy and Committee on Biotechnologies and VirusSphere, World Academy of Biomedical Technologies, UNESCO, Paris, France.

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Current Research on Abdominal Cocoon Syndrome: Two Cases of an Anatomical Abnormality | Chapter 15 | Innovations in Medicine and Medical Research Vol. 2

Introduction: Idiopathic sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis or abdominal cocoon syndrome (ACS) is a rare anatomical deformity characterized by the partial or complete encasement of the small intestine with fibrotic peritoneum. 193 incidents have been described worldwide. The aim of this study was to present two ACS cases successfully treated at the Surgical Clinic of the Agios Dimitrios General Hospital in Thessaloniki, Greece. Presentation of Cases: Two men (55 and 54 years old) presented to the emergency department complaining of abdominal pain, distension, constipation, nausea, and vomiting. Neither of these patients had surgical histories. The computed tomography of the first patient showed considerable distension of the small bowel, suggestive of an internal hernia. The second case showed distention of the jejunum with no obvious cause. Both patients underwent emergency surgery. Intraoperatively, we found that a fibrous membrane had completely covered the small intestine of the first patient, and the jejunum and part of the large intestine of the second patient. Adhesiolysis and a partial excision of the membrane were performed in both cases. Discussion: ACS is a rare cause of small bowel ileus. Although pharmaceutical treatments with immunosuppressants and steroids have been described, surgical treatment is the gold standard.  Conclusion: Preoperative clinical suspicion of this disease can help determine the diagnosis and protect surgeons from intraoperative “surprises.”  

Author(s) Details


Apostolos Sovatzidis
Healthcare Center of Evosmos, Thessaloniki, Greece.

Eirini Nikolaidou
Department of Plastic, Reconstructive and Hand Surgery and Burns ICU, General Hospital of Thessaloniki “G. Papanikolaou”, Thessaloniki, Greece.

Anastasios Katsourakis
Department of Surgery, Agios Dimitrios General Hospital, Thessaloniki, 54634, Greece. 

George Noussios
School of Physical Education and Sports Sciences, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54623, Greece.

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Paul Ehlrich’s Mastzellon- The Legend Lives | Chapter 14 | Innovations in Medicine and Medical Research Vol. 2

Background: Mast cells (MC) secrete a variety of molecules that are implicated in either promoting tumour growth or may act in an opposite manner in other tumour types.  Aim: To evaluate the association of mast cells in the different grades of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma (OSCC).  Material and Methods: 45 diagnosed cases each of well, moderate and poorly differentiated OSCC were identified from the institutional archival material. Slides were made of 5 µm thickness and stained with Hematoxylin and eosin and 1% Toluidine blue stain. Each section was evaluated for mast cells in peritumoural, intratumoural locations and at the invasive front of the tumour. The results obtained were subjected to statistical evaluation by an SPSS version 19 using Chi square test, Anova and Post hoc Tuckey tests.  Results: An inverse relation was observed between MC count with grade of the tumour with maximum MC located in the peritumoural area followed by the invasive front and the least in the intra tumoural areas.  Conclusion: The results of the present study suggest that a decrease in MC count is associated with an advanced histologic grade of OSCC and hence a poorer prognosis, thus favouring the protective role of mast cells in OSCC.

Author(s) Details
Dr. Uzma Iqbal Belgaumi
Department of Oral Pathology and Microbiology, School of Dental Sciences, Krishna Institute of Medical Sciences, Deemed University, Karad, Maharashtra, India.

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An Approach of Acute Encephalitis Syndrome in Muzaffarpur, Bihar; A Different Perspective | Chapter 13 | Innovations in Medicine and Medical Research Vol.2

Acute encephalitis syndrome (AES) is a disease characterized by fever and mental confusion, disorientation, delirium, or coma. It could be due to various causes such as viruses, bacteria, fungus, parasites, spirochetes, chemical, and toxins. This chapter is an outcome of an Epidemiological investigation of AES occurred in Muzaffarpur, Bihar in 2011 which was done by a team consisting of experts from various disciplines. The team visited Muzaffarpur, from 14th to 20th July 2011 and reviewed the situation of deaths among children due to AES, as directed by the Authorities. A total of 147 cases of fever with altered sensorium were admitted between 11th June to 18th July 2011 in a private hospital and a Medical College Hospital of Muzaffarpur. Out of these, 54 patients died indicating case fatality rate of 36.73%. Clinico-epidemiological and environmental evidence supports the diagnosis of Acute Encephalitis Syndrome which has significant mortality, affecting predominantly rural population with poor sanitation and presence of wild rats. No significant association of litchi consumption and poor nutritional status of children with AES disease were found. Evidences suggest that there were increased chances of contacts between cases and wild rats during the period of occurrence of outbreak. Key observation was the sudden drop in incidence of cases with rainfall as during and just after the rain children abandons the outdoor games in farmlands/ litchi gardens due to accumulation of water in these areas and exposure from the rodents prevented Etiological agent could not be identified by laboratory tests. Time, place and person distribution of cases is suggestive of infectious disease of short incubation period (<1 day) having wider spectrum of sub clinical and clinical phases & lifelong immunity after first infection.

Author(s) Details
Dr. Anil Kumar
Directorate General of Health Services, Ministry of Health & Family Welfare, India.

Deepika Karotia
National Leprosy Eradication Program, India

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Hybrid Appliance for the Correction of Parafunctional Habits | Chapter 12 | Innovations in Medicine and Medical Research Vol. 2

Tongue thrusting and thumb sucking are the most commonly seen oral habits which act as the major etiological factors in the development of dental malocclusion. This case report describes a fixed habit correcting appliance, Hybrid Habit Correcting Appliance (HHCA), designed to eliminate these habits. This hybrid appliance is effective in less compliant patients and if desired can be used along with the fixed orthodontic appliance. Its components can act as mechanical restrainers and muscle retraining devices. It is also effective in cases with mild posterior crossbites.

Author(s) Details

Reji Abraham
Department of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, Sri Hasanamba Dental College and Hospital, Hassan, Karnataka, India

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Immunotherapy Using Mycobacterium w Vaccine in Locally Advanced Head and Neck Cancer: Illustrative Research | Chapter 11 | Innovations in Medicine and Medical Research Vol. 2

The oncological treatment has been advanced promisingly over the past decades. The patients may be treated with surgery, chemotherapy (CT), radiotherapy (RT) or combination of these treatment modalities. Immunotherapy for prevention and treatment of malignant disease is also in initial stage and has raised a hope that improving immune mechanism can be of use. Most suitable treatment modality for the patient is selected after the final diagnosis. The use of Mycobacterium w (Mw) vaccine in Head and neck cancer (HNC) is an effort to reduce treatment induced toxicity with resultant improvement in the response rate. Immunotherapy in the form of Mw vaccine may be useful as concurrent therapy with radical intent concomitant chemo radiation treatment to improve response rate with less side effects in patients suffering from locally advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinoma

Author (s) Details

Dr. Rakesh Dhankhar
Department of Radiotherapy, Regional Cancer Centre, Pt. Bhagwat Dayal Sharma Post Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Rohtak, Haryana, India.

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Development on Tumor Associated Antigen with Specific Target toward Lung Cancer: Recent Developments | Chapter 19 | Innovations in Medicine and Medical Research Vol. 2

Tumor liberated protein (TLP) has been previously described as a TAA (complex) present in the sera from lung cancer patients with early stage disease. Since early detection improves overall survival in lung cancer, identification of screening biomarkers for patients at risk for the development of this disease represents an important target. Starting from the peptide epitope RTNKEASI previously isolated from TLP complexes, we generated a rabbit anti-RTNKEASI serum. This antiserum detected and immunoprecipitated a 55 kDa protein band in the lysate of the lung cancer cell line A549. This protein band was identified as aldehyde dehydrogenase is form 1A1 through mass spectrometry, revealing the molecular nature of at least one component of the previously described TLP complex. 

Author(s) Details

Giulio Tarro
Beaumont Bonelli Foundation for Cancer Research, Naples, Italy and Committee on Biotechnologies and VirusSphere, World Academy of Biomedical Technologies, UNESCO, Paris, France.

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