Diseases of Different Crops in Zoba Anseba of Eritrea | Book Publisher International

Eritrea is a country of North Eastern Africa, areas where sorghum is originated and believed to be the center of its domesticated. The country bordered on the east by the Red Sea, the south by Djibouti and Ethiopia and the north and west by Sudan. It has a land area of 125,000 square kilometers. According to Grando et al., (2010), of the total potential arable land the area under cereal cultivation is estimated as 463,926 hectares (average of 2005-2008).

The major and important field crops in Eritrea are sorghum and pearl millet. In the order of importance by area in Eritrea (average of 2005-2008 with 463,926 hectares) are: sorghum (machala1 56%), pearl millet (bultuk 13%), barley (segem 9%), finger millet (dagusha 6%), tef (tef  6%), maize (offun 5%), wheat (sernay 4%) and hanfets (mixture of barley and wheat, 1%). Pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum) is the most widely grown type of millet and Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) native to Africa with many cultivated forms now is an important crop worldwide. They are the most important crops for both human consumption and animal fodder ranking after paddy, wheat and maize in the world.

The crop yield is adversely affected by several biotic (animate) and abiotic (inanimate) factors. More than 100 diseases caused by different microorganisms have been reported. Among this downy mildew, smut, anthracnoses are of economically important in major growing areas of the sub zoba Hamelmalo and zoba Anseba. However the average yield in the major sorghum growing areas is <0.673 t/ha in Hamelmalo region, while Sudan (neighbor of Eritrea) one of the largest producers of sorghum in the world.

The most common reasons for low yields are drought, pests, diseases and weeds (Striga) wild sorghums and their intermediates with cultivated sorghum and lack of improved practices (Tesfamichael, 1999 and Obilana et al., 2002). Seven fungal genera were encountered in high percent frequencies of seed borne fungal pathogen in sorghum, pearl millet and groundnut collected from farmers own saved seeds from Zoba Anseba (Syed et al., 2013).

The common diseases occurred on these crops are: Downy Mildew, Leaf blight, Rectangular Leaf spot, Anthracnose and red rot, Rust, Grain smut, Loose smut, Long smut, Ergot or Sugary disease, Head mould and Phanerogamic parasite (Striga asiatica). During a decade period of time investigations some of the following diseases have been observed.

Author(s) Details

Syed Danish Yaseen Naqvi
Department of Plant Protection, Hamelmalo Agricultural College, Hamelmalo, Eritrea.

G. Sethumadhava Rao
Department of Plant Protection, Hamelmalo Agricultural College, Hamelmalo, Eritrea.

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The Relationship between Value Creation and Subsidiarity within Public Administration | Chapter 13 | Current Perspective to Economics and Management Vol. 3

The process of change being undertaken by public administration in recent years leaves us, as citizens, surprised by the intensity and the constancy of the efforts being made in rethinking both reference systems as well as organizational procedures adopted by public institutions to provide services to communities. This concept can be summarized by the term “corporatization” of public administration. The prevailing business model is a stakeholder oriented model, in which a company is conceptualized as the centre of a network of interests in which stakeholders are the subjects that make up the administrative community: citizens, public administrations, providers of goods and services, investors, employees and interest groups. Within this context, in order to proceed uninterrupted and with constant forward momentum, public administration must work to ensure the simultaneous satisfaction of diverse interests.

Author(s) Details

Prof. Ubaldo Comite
Department of Business Sciences, University of Calabria, Arcavacata – Rende, Italy.

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An Empirical Case Study of Sada Shiv Modern Group in Kandi Area of Punjab | Chapter 12 | Current Perspective to Economics and Management Vol. 3

Self help groups (SHGs) have been instrumental in women empowerment by enabling them to work together. Members engaged in food processing activities have the potential to empower them through the capacity building that underpins sustainable agriculture. The findings of the study reveals that women who never used to step outside the four walls of their home is now becoming business women and supplementing their family income. The results indicates that majority of the respondents are young, matriculates, labourers, belongs to SC category, have family size of 4-6 members and earn up to Rs. 65000 per annum. The economic benefits gained from enrolling in the groups are found to be high in terms of selling products individually, understand banking operations to avail credit facility, develop courage to think independently, understand group activity and manage group activities after joining the group. Furthermore the social empowerment of the members in terms of team spirit, talking freely within family, confidence in dealing with people is enhanced. It indicates that self help groups bring economic upliftment, leadership skills in managing the group and inculcate great confidence in the members of selected groups to succeed in their day to day life.

Author(s) Details

Lakhwinder Kaur
Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana, Punjab, India.

Preeti Sharma
Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana, Punjab, India.

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Impact of Vermicomposting Training Programme on Production, Economics and Employment Generation of Farmer – A Case Study | Chapter 11 | Current Perspective to Economics and Management Vol. 3

Vermicomposting technology is a simple and quick process of converting farm waste into valuable compost which in-turn acts as a source of the organic amendment for improving soil health enhancing crop production, in which certain species of earthworms are used to enhance the process of waste conversion and produce a better end product. Vermicompost has at least four times more plant nutrients than conventional cattle dung compost. Vermicomposting is also act as a source of creating self employment and revenue generation. The technologies available at present in the field of agriculture have no relevance whatsoever if these are not reached and adopted by the farmers for the improvement of crop productivity. Krishi Vigyan Kendra is a district level knowledge centre formed under the policy guidance of Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR) and which acts as the apex body to govern the Transfer of Technology (TOT) across the nation. One of the mandates of such district level knowledge centre is to provide vocational training to the farming individuals’ viz. farmer, farm women, rural youths, and unemployed school drop-outs. The farmers can learn the vermicomposting technology through hands on training and take-up this as a venture for additional income generation apart from crop husbandry and make this as one of the components in Integrated Farming System (IFS) for creating employment. Keeping this in view, the present study was undertaken to analyse the impact of vocational training in specific relevance to vermicomposting technology provided to the intended clientele group during 2012. The crux of the study was focused on the impact indicators like a) change in the level of production b) economics c) additional employment generated etc., on the intended clientele group. The present research study was confined to the operational cum jurisdictional area catered by Krishi Vigyan Kendra of Cuddalore district in the state of Tamil Nadu, India. One of the farmers by name Mr. V. Sekar of Kodukoor village in Cuddalore district attended the vocational training on vermicomposting organized by ICAR- KVK Cuddalore during 2012. Mr. V. Sekar got motivated and started a vermicomposting unit of size 6 x 2 x 2 feet with the technical guidance from KVK Cuddalore. The scientific validation of study revealed that Mr. V. Sekar was earning a net annual income of Rs. 1,15,500/- through the sale of vermicompost and earth worms, thereby generating an additional employment of 426 man-days per year. It was concluded that the vocational training and technical backstopping extended by the KVK Cuddalore was the most viable technology transformation tool in enhancing farmers’ income and employment generation.  So, vermi-composting is a potent technology to convert organic waste to valuable product and to provide additional income for farmers. The success of any production system basically depends on need, availability of inputs and marketing channels by which one can market with remunerative price by using locally available resources.  Some of the teething issues like marketing and linkages must be formulated by the policy makers to promote marketing of such farm products to sustain the farmers’ income and soil health in future so as to maintain nature ecology intact.

Author(s) Details

Dr. V. Dhanushkodi
ICAR-Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Sirugamani, Tirchirappalli -639 115, Tamil Nadu, India.

G. Porkodi
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Virudhachalam, Cuddalore 606 001, Tamil Nadu, India.

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Creativity versus Innovativeness: Exploring the Differences between the Two Constructs May Lead to Greater Innovation in Large Firms | Chapter 10 | Current Perspective to Economics and Management Vol. 3

Several individuals from top management seem to be confused about the difference between creativity and innovativeness. [1] suggests that while innovation begins with creative ideas, creativity by individuals and teams is only a starting point for innovation. Individual creativity is necessary but not sufficient to yield breakthrough innovation in organizations. This can sometimes cause confusion in employee development efforts and actions taken by management. Companies often look for ways to hire and retain creative employees and at the same time they are also interested in establishing a creative environment for knowledge workers… but should creativity be the primary focus? These firms hope that creativity enhancing steps will eventually lead to greater innovation and therefore help it to achieve sustained competitive advantage. This paper attempts to demonstrate that there are potentially other dimensions beyond creativity related to innovativeness, which should be considered at the individual level in order to foster innovation in firms. Empirical results in this study support the idea that intrinsic motivational orientation, sociability and political astuteness are enhancers to employee innovativeness while perfection seeking behavior detracts employee innovativeness. These findings may serve to extend Amabile’s [1] componential framework to center on the “innovativeness” construct versus creativity to help explain how firms need to hire, cultivate and retain the right talent.

Author(s) Details

John Cocco
Lally School of Management & Technology Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York, USA.

Majdi Anwar Quttainah
College of Business Administration, Kuwait University, Kuwait.

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Reviewing the Impact of Climate Change on Agriculture and Farm Households through Gender Lens | Chapter 09 | Current Perspective to Economics and Management Vol. 3

Climate change is one of the greatest global challenges of our time. Impact of climate change can be felt in many areas including agriculture. Agriculture is primary occupation of a human being. Among all the human activities, agriculture being the mostly weather dependent is physically and economically more vulnerable to climate change. With climate change looming in the scene, agriculture and livelihoods of the farm-households are also affected. Vulnerability to climate change is determined by many factors of which gender and poverty are important ones. The contribution and significance of women in agriculture and livelihood cannot be undermined. What impact climate change has, how much vulnerable people are and what adaptation and mitigation strategies they adopt varies with gender. The present paper is based on reviews from different journals, papers and secondary data. It reviews the relationship between climate change, agriculture and gender roles & relations. Climate change is found to have negative impact on Brazilian crop. Mortality rate of men during cyclone was found to be more in developed countries while more women in developing countries. In Amhara, women and women headed households were found to be more vulnerable to food insecurity during flood. Women and children were the one who were more affected by rainfall and drought. To cope up with drought most men farmer commit suicide or migrate to cities on the other hand women had to take up odd job like prostitution. During flood women of Bangladesh use sugar to reduce soil salinity, raise cultivable land to save it from water inundation during floods and spring surges as coping strategy. The various cases reviewed in this paper indicates that gender mainstreaming of climate change adaptation and mitigation interventions is the need of the time.

Author(s) Details

Kankabati Kalai
Department of Extension Education, College of Agriculture, Indira Gandhi Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Raipur, Chhattisgarh, 492 012, India.

Dr. Loukham Devarani
School of Social Sciences, College of Post Graduate Studies, CAU, Umiam, Meghalaya, India.

Bai Koyu
School of Social Sciences, College of Post Graduate Studies, CAU, Umiam, Meghalaya, India.

Dr. Nivetina Laitonjam
School of Social Sciences, College of Post Graduate Studies, CAU, Umiam, Meghalaya, India.

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Assessment of the Contributions of the Bank of Agriculture to Cassava Production in Isoko North Local Government Area of Delta State, Nigeria | Chapter 08 | Current Perspective to Economics and Management Vol. 3

The study was conducted to assess the contribution of the Bank of Agriculture to cassava production in Isoko North Local Government Area. A simple random sampling technique was employed in the selection of six (6) towns and twelve (12) local cassava farmers from each of this six towns. The sample size was seventy two (72). Both primary and secondary data were used in the study. Data analysis was done using descriptive statistics and the chi-square test was used to test the hypothesis. The study showed that only 30.6% of the farmers had access to credit facilities. The average amount of credit obtained was N186, 500. A proportion of 54.2% of the respondents obtained N51, 000 to N100, 000. About 13.9%obtained N161, 000 to N 200,000. A negligible proportion of 8.35% obtained above N210, 000.The average farm size of the farmers is 3.5  hectares The results of the chi-square test shows that the farmers that had access to credit have statistically significant higher output and farm size than those farmers that did not have access. However, there was no significant difference in the farm capital and expenditure values between those farmers that had access and those that did not. Although the Bank of Agriculture has made some significant contribution in the provision of credit for cassava production, the credit facilities are not adequate for the farmers to expand their farm holdings in order to increase cassava production in the study area.

Author(s) Details

K. N. Tibi
Delta State Polytechnic, Ozoro, Delta State, Nigeria.

R. Nwadiolu
Delta State Polytechnic, Ozoro, Delta State, Nigeria.

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